Dmitriev, Mikhail Vladimirovich. Confessio vs natio. Byzantine theological tradition as hindrance in formation of ethnic and national identity discourses in medieval Rus’

Published Date:

For citation: Dmitriev, Mikhail Vladimirovich. Confessio vs natio. Byzantine theological tradition as hindrance in formation of ethnic and national identity discourses in medieval Rus’, in Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana. 2022. № 1. Pp. 83-104. DOI

Title of the article Confessio vs natio. Byzantine theological tradition as hindrance in formation of ethnic and national identity discourses in medieval Rus’

Dmitriev, Mikhail Vladimirovich ― Dr. Sc., professor, Moscow Lomonosov State University; Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia, OrcID 0000-0002-4101-8755, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In the section  Disputatio / Discussion
Year 2022 Issue 1 Pages 83-104
Type of article RAR Index UDK; BBK UDK 94; BBK 63.3(2)41–45  Index DOI
Abstract This article attempts to verify some aspects of the research hypothesis which implies that normative orientations of the Byzanine orthodox theological thought (in ideologies, mentalities, discourses) contained traditions and constructions that were in odds with tendency to see communities of ethnic type in people whom we used to qualify as Russians and Ruthenians. In the East European Orthodox medieval Christian identity of groups included in the Church was thought of as a hindrance in forming discourses, which would claim that the Church community could be fragmented into ethnic and «national» groups (nationes). Old Russian texts, and texts of Muscovy, as well as writings of some Orthodox authors in Ruthenia (Ukraine and Belarus’) of the early 17th century have been taken in account. In these sources, very often, theological discourses were entering in conflict with tendency to transfer norms of ethnic (tribal) identity on the Christian communities. This generated a situation when «Russianness» was not perceived in ethnic terms, and in this respect relationships between Christian and «ethnic» were understood in a very different way, than in the theological culture of medieval West. Search for an explanation leads to the area of the Byzantine theological tradition, in which Christian and ethnic identities were regarded as two conflicting discourses. The Orthodox identity of emperor’s subjects was understood as «effacing» traces of tribal (ethnic) belonging. For subjects of Christian history (id est history of those, who got baptized) were regarded not the multiple nationes, but «new people» who became a united «nation of God». In medieval Rus, this discursive ligic was expressed by «Tale of the bygone years»; the same discursive «scenario» seems to be implemented in other texts of Russian Middle Ages, and this lead to Orthodox culture of Muscovy, which repelled the ethnic definition of «Russianness». It is very likely, that the same tendency was alive — disappearing and reappearing — in the worldview of literati and broader circles of the Orthodox population of Ruthenian lands.
Keywords Byzantine theology, confession, Christianity, ethnicity, old-Russian, Ukrainian-Belorussian, Ruthenian, cultural studies, medieval studies
Full text version of the article Article language  Russain

Ahrweiler, Hélène. Constantinople seconde Rome: Le tournant de 1204 [Constantinople as second Rome: the 1204 turning point], in Roma, Constantinopoli, Mosca. Naples, 1983. (Dalla Roma alla Terza Roma. Documenti e studi. Studi. I). Pp. 307–315. (in French).

Ahrweiler, Hélène. L’idéologie politique de l’empire byzantin [Political ideology of the Byzantine Empire]. Paris: PUF Publ., 1975. 158 p. (in French).

Angelov, Dimiter. Imperial Ideology and Political Thought in Byzantium, 1204–1330. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. 453 p.

Auerbach, Inge. Identity in Exile: Andrei Mikhailovich Kurbskij and National Consciousness in the 16th Century, in Kleimola, Ann M.; Lenhoff, Gail (eds). Moskovskaya Rus’ (1359–1584): Kul’tura i istoricheskoe samo­soznanie. Moscow: ITS-Garant Publ., 1997. Pp. 11–25.

Beaune, Colette. Naissance de la nation France [Birth of the nation France]. Paris: Gallimard Publ., 1985. 431 p. (in French).

Beck, Hans-Georg. Formes de non-conformisme à Byzance [Forms of non-conformism in Byzantium], in Académie Royale de Belgique: Bulletin des la Classe des Lettres et des Sciences Morales et Poitiques. 1979. Vol. 65. Pp. 313–329. (in French).

Bell, David A. The Cult of the Nation in France. Inventing Nationalism, 1680–1800. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2001. 320 p.

Borst, Arno. Die Turmbau von Babel. Geschichte der Meinungen über Ursprung und Vielfalt der Sprachen und Völker [Constructing the Babel Tower. A history of ideas about genesis and multiplicity of languages and peoples]. Bd 1. Stuttgart: A. Hiersemann, 1957. 535 S. (in German).

Bryer, Anthony. The Late Byzantine Identity. An Abstract, in Fledelius, Karsten (ed.). Byzantium. Identity, Image, Influence. XIX International Congress of Byzantine Studies. University of Copenhagen, 18–24 August, 1996. Major Papers. Copenhagen, 1996. Pp. 49–50.

Bushkovitch, Paul. Pravoslavnaya tserkov’ i russkoe natsional’noe samosoznanie XVI–XVII vv. [The Orthodox Church and the Russian national self-consciousness in the XVIth – XVIIth centuries], in Ab Imperio. 2003. No. 3. Pp. 101–117. (in Russian).

Bushkovitch, Paul. The Formation of a National Consciousness in Early Modern Russia, in Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 1986. Vol. X. No. 3–4. Pp. 355–376.

Bushkovitch, Paul. What is Russia? Russian National Identity and the State, 1500–1917, in Kappeler, Andreas; Kohut, Zenon E.; Sysyn, Frank E.; Hagen, Mark von. (eds). Culture, Nation, and Identity. The Ukrainian- Russian Encounter (1600–1945). Edmonton; Toronto: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 2003. Pp. 144–161.

Congar, Yves. Conscience ecclésiologique en Orient et en Occident du VIe au XIe siècle [Ecclesiastical self-consciousness in the East and in the West, VIth through XIth centuries], in Istina. 1959. Vol. 6. Pp. 187–236. (in French).

Dagron, Gilbert. Empereur et prêtre. Étude sur le «césaropapisme» byzantin [Emperor and priest. Essay on the Byzantine «ceasaropapism»]. Paris: Gallimard Publ., 1996. (Bibliothèques des histoires). 435 p. (in French).

Dagron, Gilbert. Imperator i svyashchennik. Etyud o vizantiyskom «tsezarepapizme» [Emperor and priest. Essay on the Byzantine «ceasaropapism»]. Ed. by Musin, Aleksandr Evgenyevich; Medvedev, Igor Pavlovich. St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya Publ., 2010. 480 p. (in Russian).

Dagron, Gilbert. Orient-Occident: Césaropapisme et théorie de deux pouvoirs face a la modernité [East-West: «Сeasaropapism» and theory of two powers in face of modernity], in Revue d’éthique et de théologie morale «Le Supplement». 2003. No. 226. Septembre. Pp. 143–157. (in French).

Dmitriev, Mikhail Vladimirovich. Konfessional’niy faktor v formirovanii predstavleniy o «russkom» v kul’ture Moskovskoy Rusi [Confessional factors in formation of representations on “the Russian” in culture of Muscovy], in Dmitriev, Mikhail Vladimirovich (ed.). Religioznye i etnicheskie traditsii v formirovanii natsional’nykh identichnostey v Evrope. Srednie veka – Novoe vremya. Moscow: Indrik Publ., 2008. Pp. 218–240. (in Russian).

Dmitriev, Mikhail Vladimirovich. Le confessionel et l’ «ethnique» dans la construction des discours proto-nationaux en Russie Moscovite aux XVIe – XVIIe siècles [Confessional and “ethnic” in the construction of proto-national discourses in Muscovy, XVIth through XVIIth centuries], in Istina. 2005. Pp. 137–162. (in French).

Dmitriev, Mikhail Vladimirovich. La «Sainte Russie» et la chrétienté [“Holy Russa” and Christianity], in Lemaitre, Nicole; Capelle-Dumont, Philippe; Armogathe, Jean-Robert (eds). La chrétienté dans l’histoire. Une notion mouvante. Paris: Editions Parole et Silence / Collège des Bernardins Publ., 2014. Pp. 105–127. (in French).

Dmitriev, Mikhail Vladimirovich. «Narod blagochestiya ruskogo»: O konfessional’nom i etnicheskom v predstavleniyakh o «russkom narode» Rechi Pospolitoy [“People of Ruthenian piety”: on confessional and ethnic in representations of the “Ruthenian people” of the Rzechpospolita], in «Vertograd mnogotsvetniy». Moscow: Indrik Publ., 2018. Pp. 453–463. (in Russian).

Dmitriev, Mikhail Vladimirovich. Pravoslavnoe i «russkoe» v predstavleniyakh o «russkom narode» Rechi Pospolitoy (konets XVI – seredina XVII vv.) .) [The Orthodox and the “Russian” in representations about “Ruthenian people” of the Rzechpospolita (late XVIth – middle XVIIth centuries)], in Doronin, Andrey Vladimirovich (ed.). Drevnyaya Rus’ posle Drevney Rusi: Diskurs vostochnoslavyanskogo (ne)edinstva. Moscow: Political encyclopedia Publ., 2017. Pp. 193–214. (in Russian).

Dmitriev, Mikhail Vladimirovich. «Russkiy narod» ili «lyudi Bozhii»? Ob osobennostyakh protonatsional’nykh diskursov v kul’ture Moskovskoy Rusi [“Russian people” or “God’s people”? About peculiarities of the protonational discourses in culture of Muscovy], in Boytsov, Mikhail Anatolyevich; Voskoboynikov, Oleg Sergeevich (eds). Polystoria. Bog, Rim, narod v srednevekovoy Evrope. Moscow: High School of Economics Publ., 2021. Pp. 256–304. (in Russian).

Dmitriev, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Shpirt, Andrey Mikhaylovich. Identichnost’ Rusi i «rusi» v pismennykh pamyatnikakh ukrainsko-belorusskoy pravoslavnoy kul’tury XV–XVII vv.: Istoriograficheskie zametki [Rus’ and “rus”’ identity in written texts of the Ruthenian Orthodox culture in the XVth –XVIIth centuries: Remarks on historiography], in Doronin, Andrey Vladimirovich (ed.). Narrativy rusi kontsa XV – serediny XVIII vv.: V poiskakh svoey istorii. Moscow: ROSSPEN Publ., 2017. Pp. 332–383. (in Russian).

Dobrovolskiy, Dmitriy Anatolyevich. Nachal’naya letopis’ kak istochnik po istorii kollektivnogo samosoznaniya Drevney Rusi [Primary chronicle as source on history of collective self-consciousness in Old Russia], in Dialog so vremenem. 2009. No. 27. Pp. 43–61. (in Russian).

Dobrovolskiy, Dmitriy Anatolyevich. «Yakozhe i praroditeli nashi pogynusha»: K voprosu ob etnicheskom samosoznanii drevnerusskikh letopistsev XI – nachala XII v. [“As our for-fathers perished”: on the ethnic self-consciousness of authors of chronicles in Old Russia, XIth – early XIIth centuries], in Vestnik Rossiyskogo gosudarstvennogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. 2010. No. 7. Pp. 83–95. (in Russian).

Dujcev, Ivan. La crise idéologique de 1203–1204 et ses repercussions sur la civilisation byzantine [The ideological crisis of 1203-1204 and its impact of the Byzantine civilization]. Paris: J. Maisonneuve Publ., 1976. (Cahiers de travaux et de conférences). 68 p. (in French).

Dutu, Alexandru. Redecouvrir Rome et la seconde Rome. Une demarche historiographique historiographique [To re-discover Rome and the second Rome], in Roma, Constantinopoli, Mosca. Naples: Edizione scientifiche Italiane Publ., 1983. (Dalla Roma alla Terza Roma. Documenti e studi. Studi. I). P. 325–335. (in French).

Eichenberger, Thomas. Patria. Studien zur Bedeutung des Wortes im Mittelalter (VI–XII Jahrhundert) [Patria. Studies on word’s meaning in Middle Ages (VIth – XIIth centuries)]. Sigmaringen: Jan Thorbecke Publ., 1991. 287 p. (in German).

Erusalimskiy, Konstantin Yuryevich. Natione Moschus: Identichnost’ vykhodtsev iz Moskovskogo gosudarstva v Rechi Pospolitoy XVI – nachala XVII v. [Identity of newcomers from Muscovite State in the Rzeczpospolita, XVIth – early XVIIth centuries], in Vestnik RGGU. Seriya «Istoricheskie nauki. Istoriya / Studia classica et mediaevalia». Moscow, 2011. No. 14 (76)/11. Pp. 326–352. (in Russian).

Erusalimskiy, Konstantin Yuryevich. Na sluzhbe korolya i Rechi Pospolitoy [On king’s and Rzeczpospolita’s service]. Moscow; St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya Publ., 2018. 1012 p. (in Russian).

Erusalimskiy, Konstantin Yuryevich. Ponyatiya «narod», «Rosia», «Ruskaya zemlya» i sotsial’nye diskursy Moskovskoy Rusi kontsa XV – XVII vv. [Notions of “people”, “Russia”, “Russian land” and social discourses in Muscovite Russia, end of the XVth through XVIIth centuries], in Dmitriev, Mikhail Vladimirovich (ed.). Religioznye i etnicheskie traditsii v formirovanii natsional’nykh identichnostey v Evrope. Srednie veka – Novoe vremya. Moscow: Indrik Publ., 2008. Pp. 137–179. (in Russian).

Erusalimsky, Konstantin. The Notion of People in Medieval and Early-Modern Russia, in Sensus Historiae. Studia interdyscyplinarne. 2011. Vol. 3 (2). Pp. 9–34.

Eshel, Shay. The concept of the Elect Nation in Byzantium. Leiden; Boston: Brill Publ., 2018. 224 p.

Florya, Boris Nikolaevich. Otrazhenie religioznykh konfliktov mezhdu protivnikami i priverzhentsami unii v «massovom soznanii» prostogo naseleniya Ukrainy i Belorussii v pervoy polovine XVII v. [Representations of religious conflicts between foes and proponents of the Church union in the „mass consciousness“ of ordinary population of Ukraine et Belorussia in the first half of the XVIIth century], in Dmitriev, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Zaborovskiy, Lev Valentinovich; Turilov, Anatoliy Arkadyevich; Florya, Boris Nikolaevich. Brestskaya uniya 1596 g. i obshchestvenno-politicheskaya bor’ba na Ukraine i v Belorussii v kontse XVI – nachale XVII v. Moscow, 1996. Part 2. Pp. 151–174. (in Russian).

Florya, Boris Nikolaevich. Natsіonal’no-konfesіyna svіdomіst’ naselennya Skhіdnoy Ukraini v pershіy polovinі XVII stolіttya [National and confessional self-consciousness of population in the Eastern part of Ukraine in in the first half of the XVIIth century], in Gudzyak, Boris; Turiy, Oleg (eds). Beresteyska unіya ta vnutrіshne zhittya Tserkvi u XVІІ stolіttі: Materіaly Chetvertikh «Beresteyskikh chitan’», Lvіv, Lutsk, Kyiv, 2–6 zhovtnya 1995 r. Lvіv, 1997. Pp. 125–147. (in Ukrainian).

Grala, Hieronim. Byla li «Svyataya Rus’» «mestom pamyati» rusi Rechi Pospolitoy? [Was “Holy Russia” a “place of memory” of rus’ of the in the Rzeczpospolita?], in Doronin, Andrey Vladimirovich (ed.). «Mesta pamyati» rusi kontsa XV – serediny XVIII v. Moscow: ROSSPEN Publ., 2019. Pp. 260–291. (in Russian).

Ivánka, Endre von. Rhomäerreich und Gottesvolk. Das Glaubens-, Staats- und Volksbewusstsein der Byzantiner und seine Auswirkung auf die ostkirchliche-osteuropäische Geisteshaltung [Empire of Romans and God’s people. Confessional, political and national self-consciousness of the Byzantines and its impact on the East-Christian and East-European mindset]. Freiburg; Munich: Karl Alber Publ., 1968. 167 p. (in German).

Kaldellis, Anthony. Hellenism in Byzantium: The Transformations of Greek Identity and the Reception of the Classical Tradition (Greek Culture in the Roman World). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. 468 p.

Kantorowicz, Ernst. Dva tela korolya. Issledovanie po srednevekovoy politicheskoy teologii [The king’s two bodies. A study in medieval political theology]. Moscow: Gaidar Institute Press, 2014. 744 p. (in Russian).

Kantorowicz, Ernst. Mourir pour la patrie (Pro Patria Mori) dans la pensée politique médiévale, in Kantorowicz, Ernst. Mourir pour la patrie et les autres textes. Paris: PUF Publ., 1984. Pp. 105–141. (in French).

Kantorowicz, Ernst Hartwig. Pro Patria Mori in Medieval Political Thought [To die for the sake of fatherland (Pro Patria Mori) in medieval political thought], in American Historical Review. Vol. 56 (1951). Pp. 472–492.

Kohut, Zenon E. A Dynastic or Ethno-Dynastic Tsardom? Two Early Modern Concepts of Russia, in Siefert, Marsha (ed.). Extending the Borders of Russian History. Essays in Honor of A. J. Rieber. Budapest; New York, 2003. Pp. 17–30.

Laushkin, Aleksey Vladimirovich. K voprosu o razvitii etnicheskogo samosoznaniya drevnerusskoy narodnosti («khresteyani» i « khrestyanskyi» v pamyatnikakh letopisaniya XI–XIII vv.) [On the development of ethnic self-consciousness of the Old-Russian population (“Christians and “Christian” in chronicles, XIth –XIIIth centuries], in Srednevekovaya Rus’: Voprosy medievistiki. Moscow, 2006. Issue 6. Pp. 29–65. (in Russian).

Laushkin, Aleksey Vladimirovich. Rus’ i sosedi: Istoriya etnokonfessional’nykh predstavleniy v drevnerusskoy knizhnosti XI–XIII vv. [Rus’ and its neighbours: history of ethno-confessional representations in the Old Russians bookish culture]. Moscow: Dmitry Pozharsky University Press, 2019. 304 p. (in Russian).

Litavrin, Gennadiy Grigoryevich. Nekotorye osobennosti etnonimov v vizantiyskikh istochnikakh, in Voprosy etnogeneza i etnicheskoy istorii slavyan i vostochnykh romantsev. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1976. Pp. 198–216. (in Russian).

Litavrin, Gennadiy Grigoryevich. Vizantiytsy i slavyane ― vzaimnye predstavleniya [Some peculiarities of ethnic names in the Byzantine sources], in Litavrin, Gennadiy Grigorevich. Vizantiya i slavyane. Sbornik statey. St. Petersburg: Aletheia Publ., 1999. Pp. 590–602. (in Russian).

Malamut, Elizabeth. De l’empire des Romains à la nation des Hellènes. Evolution de l’identité des Byzantins de fin du XIe au XVe siècle [From Romans’ Empire to the nation of Hellenes. Evolution of Byzantines’ identity, end of the XIth through XVth centuries], in Nation et nations au Moyen Age. XLIVe сongrès de la SHMESP. Prague, 23–26 mai 2013. Paris, 2014. Pp. 165–179. (in French).

Nemenskiy, Oleg Borisovich. Ob etnokonfessional’nom samosoznanii pravoslavnogo i uniatskogo naseleniya Rechi Pospolitoy posle Brestskoy unii [On the ethnoconfessional self-consciousness of the Uniate and Orthodox population of the Rzeczpospolita after the Union of Brest], in Nemenskiy, Oleg Borisovich (ed.). Mezhdu Moskvoy, Varshavoy i Kievom: Sbornik statey. Moscow, 2008. Pp. 105–113. (in Russian).

Nicol, Donald. Church and Society in the last centuries of Byzantium. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979. 162 p.

Page, Gill. Being Byzantine: Greek Identity before the Ottomans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. 344 p.

Petrukhin, Vladimir Yakovlevich. Drevnyaya Rus’: Etnicheskiy aspekt stanovleniya i razvitiya gosudarstvennosti [Old Rus’: the ethnic aspect in the emergence and evolution of statehood], in Krasovitskaya, Tamara Yusufovna; Tishkov, Valeriy Aleksandrovich (eds). Etnicheskiy i religiozniy faktory v formirovanii i evolyutsii rossiyskogo gosudarstva. Moscow: New chronograph Publ., 2012. Pp. 9–59. (in Russian).

Podskalsky, Gerhard. Byzantinische Reicheschatologie. Die Periodisierung des Weltgeschichte in den vier Grossreichen (Daniel 2 und 7) und dem Tausendjährigen Friedensreiche (Apokl 20). Eine Motivgeschichctliche Untersuchung [The Byzantine imperial eschatology. Periodization of the world history in four great empires (Dan., 2 and 7) and the millenial empire of peace (Apocal., 20). A study in history of ideas]. Munich: Wilhelm Fink Publ., 1972. (Münchener Universitäts-Schriften. Reihe des Philosophischen Fakultät, 9). 114 p. (in German).

Reynolds, Susan. Medieval «origines gentium» and the community of the realm, in History. Vol. 68. No. 224 (1983). Pp. 383–384.

Smythe, Dion Clive. Byzantine Identity and Labelling Theory, in Fledelius, Karsten (ed.). Byzantium. Identity, Image, Influence. XIX International Congress of Byzantine Studies. University of Copenhagen, 18–24 August, 1996. Major Papers. Copenhagen, 1996. Pp. 26–36.

Stefanovich, Petr Sergeevich. Identichnost’ rusi v «impersko-eskhatologicheskoy» perspektive sostavitelya «Nachal’nogo svoda» [Rus’ identity in the imperial and eschatological perspective of compiler of “The pri­mary chronicle”], in Drevnyaya Rus’: Voprosy medievistiki. Moscow, 2018. Pp. 48–64. (in Russian).

Stefanovich, Petr Sergeevich. K voprosu o ponyatii rus’ v drevneyshem letopisanii [About notion of “rus’” in the Old Russian chronicles], in Slověne. 2018. Vol. 7. № 2. Pp. 356–382. (in Russian).

Stefanovich, Petr Sergeevich. Novye podkhody k etnichnosti v medievistike: vzglyad iz «drevnerusskoy perspektivy» [New approaches to ethnicity in medieval studies: a look from an „Old Russian perspective”], in Tishkov, Valeriy Aleksandrovich; Pivneva, Elena Anatolyevna (eds). Istoricheskaya pamyat’ i rossiyskaya identichnost’. Moscow: Russian Academy of Sciences Press, 2018. Pp. 467–486. (in Russian).

Stefanovich, Petr Sergeevich. Rus’ protopopa Avvakuma: ot «novogo Izrailya» k «dukhovnomu bratstvu» [Rus’ of protopop Avvakum: from the “New Israel” to the “spiritual brotherhood”], in Doronin, Andrey Vladimirovich (ed.). Religiya i rus’, XV–XVIII vv. Moscow: Political encyclopedia Publ., 2020. Pp. 369–389. (in Russian).

Tkachuk, Vitaliy Anatolyevich. «Ruskaya vera» kon. XVI − pervoy pol. XVII v. [“Ruthenian faith”, end of the XVIth – first half of the XVIIth centuries], in Doronin, Andrey Vladimirovich (ed.). Religiya i rus’, XV–XVIII vv. Moscow: Political encyclopedia Publ., 2020. Pp. 291–311. (in Russian).

Yardeni, Myriam. La conscience nationale en France pendant les guerres de religion (1559–1598) [National self-consciousness in France in the epoch of the wars of religion, 1559–1598]. Paris; Louvain: Nauwelaerts Publ., 1971. 392 p. (in French).

Yardeni, Myriam. Enquêtes sur l’identité de la «nation France». De la Renaissance aux Lumières [Studies on the identity of « the French nation ». From Renaissance to Enlightenment]. Seyssel: Champ Vallon, 2004. 379 p. (in French).

Zientara, Benedykt. La сonscience nationale en Europe Occidentale au Moyen Âge. Naissance et méchanismes du phénomène [National self-consciousness in Western Europe in Middle Ages. Birth and mechanisms of a phenomenon], in Acta Poloniae Historica. Vol. 46 (1982). Pp. 5–30. (in French).

Zientara, Benedykt. Świt narodów europejskich. Powstawanie świadomości narodowej na obszarze Europy pokarolińskiej [Sunrise of the European peolples. Emergence of the national self-consciousness in the area of post-Carolingian Europe]. Warsaw: PIW Publ., 1985. 434 p. (in Polish).

Tags: ethnicity, Old Rus, Vizantium cultural influence, medieval studies, Byzantium, Byzantine studies, DISPUTATIO / DISCUSSION, Balkans, nation, medieval Russian culture, cultural studies, Belarus, DMITRIEV M. V.

  • Hits: 268