For citation: Vinulović, Ljubica. Irene Doukaina and the double monastery of the Theotokos Kecharitomene and Christ Philanthropos: relation between private piety and ktetorship, in Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana. 2022. № 1. Pp. 71-82. DOI https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu19.2022.104
|Title of the article||Irene Doukaina and the double monastery of the Theotokos Kecharitomene and Christ Philanthropos: relation between private piety and ktetorship|
|In the section||Disputatio / Discussion|
|Type of article||RAR||Index UDK; BBK||UDK 930.85; BBK 63.3(4)||Index DOI||https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu19.2022.104|
The main preoccupation of this paper is a life, private piety and ktetorship of roman empress Irene Doukaina, as well as the political aspect of her ktetorship. She was the wife of a roman emperor Alexios I Komnenos. At the beginning of the 12th century Irene together with her husband founded a double monastery dedicated to the Theotokos Kecharitomene (Full of Grace) and to the Christ Philanthropos (Man-Loving). It was located in the 10th district of Constantinople where all Komnenian monasteries were grouped, between the aqueduct of Valence in the south and the Blachernae palace in the north. Today, this complex no longer exists, we know about it based on the preserved typikon of the Theotokos Kecharitomene. This monastery complex was the first real common endowments of the Komnenian ruling couple. It was founded as the final resting place of ktetors. In early 12th century in Constantinople some changes happened when it comes to devotion to the saints. Members of the royal family had a special personal relationship with the saints through which the emperor and empress see themselves as a parallel earthly reflection of Christ and the Mother of God. The first ruling couple who saw themselves as the counterpart of Christ and the Mother of God, were Alexios I and Irene Doukaina. This new, more personal relationship with Christ and the Mother of God is reflected in the visual culture through the model of double endowment and the consecration of the churches. Alexios’ monastery dedicated to the Christ Philanthropos was male monastery and Irene’s monastery dedicated to the Theotokos Kecharitomene was female monastery. During the reign of Alexios and Irene for the first time in the Roman empire the protective role of the Mother of God was so obviously bound exclusively to the female members of the imperial family. The monastery of the Theotokos Kecharitomene, was not only expression of Irina’s personal piety and a votive gift for Theotokos who her personal protector and an intercessor at the Last Judgement was but also was an expression of the power of the empress Irene Doukaina.
|Keywords||Irene Doukaina, Alexios I Komnenos, Komnenian genos, Theotokos Kecharitomene, Christ Philanthropos, the typikon of the monastery Theotokos Kecharitomene, private piety, ktetor, ktetorship, double monastery, medieval studies, cultural studies|
|Full text version of the article||Article language||Russain|
Angold, Michael. Church and Society in Byzantium under the Comneni, 1081–1261. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 621 p.
Belting, Hans. Slika i kult. Istorija slike do epohe umetnosti [Image and cult. History of Painting before the Age of Art]. Novi Sad: Akademska knjiga Publ., 2014. 660 p. (in Serbian).
Dawes, Elizabeth A. S. (transl.). Anna Comnena, The Alexiad. Ontario: Byzantine Series Publications Publ., 2000. 302 p.
Dieten, Jan Louis van (ed.). Nicetae Choniatae, Historia. Pars Prior: Praefationem et textum continens. Pars Altera. Indices continens: 11. Berlin: Walter De Gruyter Publ., 1975. 780 p. (in German and Greek).
Dimitropoulou, Vassiliki. Imperial women founders and refounders in Komnenian Constantinople, in Mullet, Margaret (ed.). Founders and refounders of Byzantine monasteries. Belfast: The Queen’s University of Belfast Press, 2007. Pp. 87–106.
Erdeljan, Jelena. Izabrana mesta: Konstruisanje Novih Jerusalima kod pravoslavnih Slovena [Chosen Places: Constructing New Jerusalems in Slavia Orthodoxa]. Belgrade: University of Belgrade Press, Faculty of Orthodox Theology, 2013. 263 p. (in Serbian).
Garland, Lynda. Byzantine Empresses: Women and Power in Byzantium AD 527–1204. London: Routledge Publ., 2002. 364 p.
Gautier, Paul (ed.). Nicephore Bryennios, Histoire. Brussels: Byzantion Publ., 1975. 408 p. (in French and Greek).
Grierson, Philip; Mango, Cyril; Ševčenko, Ihor. The Tombs and Obits of the Byzantine Emperors (337–1042), in Dumbarton Oaks Papers. 1962. Vol. 16. Pp. 3–63.
Hill, Barbara. Alexios I Komnenos and the imperial women, in Mullet, Margaret; Smythe, Dion (eds). Alexios I Komnenos. Papers on the Second Belfast Byzantine International Colloquium, 14–16 April 1989. Belfast: The Queen’s University of Belfast Press, 1996. Pp. 37–55.
Janin, Raymond. La géographie ecclésiastique de l’Empire byzantin. Le siège de Constantinople et le Patriarcat Oecuménique. T. III: Les églises et les monastéres [The Ecclesiastical Geography of the Byzantine Empire: The Siege of Constantinople and the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Vol. III: Churches and Monasteries]. Paris: Institut français d’études byzantines Publ., 1969. 605 p. (in French).
Janin, Raymond. Les monastères du Christ Philanthrope à Constantinople [The Monasteries of Christ Philanthropos in Constantinople], in Revue des études byzantines. 1946. Vol. 4. Pp. 135–162. (in French).
Jordan, Robert (transl.). Kecharitomene: Typikon of Empress Irene Doukaina Komnene for the Convent of the Mother of God Kecharitomene in Constantinople, in Constantinides-Hero, Angela; Thomas, John (eds). Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents: A Complete Translation of the Surviving Founders’s «Typika» and Testaments. Washington, D. C.: Dumbarton Oaks Publ., 2000. Pp. 649–724.
Kazhdan, Alexander P.; Talbot, Alice-Mary (eds). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Vol. 2. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. 729–1473 (1014) + xxxi p.
Korać, Vojislav; Šuput, Marica. Arhitektura vizantijskog sveta [Architecture of the Byzantine World]. Belgrade: Zavod za udžbenike Publ., 2010. 425 p. (in Serbian).
Leib, Bernard. Les silences de Anna Comnène [The Silences of Anna Comnenus], in Byzantinoslavica. 1958. Vol. 19. Pp. 1–10. (in French).
Magdalino, Paul. Srednjovekovni Carigrad: Studija o razvoju urbanih struktura [Medieval Constantinople: A Study on the Development of Urban Structures]. Belgrade: Clio Publ., 2001. 149 p. (in Serbian).
Magdalino, Paul. Studies on the History and Topography of Byzantine Constantinople. Aldershot: Ashgate Publ., 2007. 332 p.
Majeska, George P. Russian Travelers to Constantinople in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Washington, D. C.: Dumbarton Oaks Publ., 1984. 463 p.
Mango, Cyril. Where at Constantinople was the Monastery of Christos Pantepoptes?, in Δελτίον XAE. 1998. Vol. 20. Pp. 87–88.
Mathews, Thomas F. The Byzantine Churches of Istanbul. A Photographic Survey. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1976. 425 p.
Mullet, Margaret (ed.). Founders and refounders of Byzantine monasteries. Belfast: Queen’s University of Belfast Press, 2007. 575 p.
Ousterhout, Robert. Some Notes on the Construction of Christos Ho Pantepoptes (Eski Imaret Camii) in Istanbul, in Δελτίον XAE. 1991–1992. Vol. 16. Pp. 47–56.
Ousterhout, Robert. The Art of the Kariye Camii. Gloucester: Scala Publishers, 2000. 128 p.
Patterson-Ševčenko, Nancy (transl.). Kecharitomene: Typikon of Empress Irene Doukaina Komnene for the Convent of the Mother of God Kecharitomene in Constantinople, in Constantinides-Hero, Angela; Thomas, John (eds). Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents: A Complete Translation of the Surviving Founders’s «Typika» and Testaments. Washington, D. C.: Dumbarton Oaks Publ., 2000. Pp. 782–858.
Runciman, Steven. The End of Anna Dalassena, in Annuaire de l’Institut de Philologie et d’Histoire Orientales et Slaves. 1949. Vol. 9. Pp. 517–524.
Stanković, Vlada. Comnenian Monastic Foundations in Constantinople: Questions of Method and Historical Context, in Belgrade Historical Review. 2011. Vol. 2. Pp. 47–73.
Stanković, Vlada. John II Komnenos before the year 1118, in Bucossi, Alessandra; Rodriguez-Suarez, Alex (eds). John II Komnenos, Emperor of Byzantium: In the Shadow of Father and Son. New York: Routlege Publ., 2016. Pp. 11–21.
Stanković, Vlada. Komninu u Carigradu: (1057–1185): Evolucija jedne vladarske porodice [The Komnenoi in Constantinople (1057–1185): The Evolution of a Ruling Family]. Belgrade: The Institute for Byzantine Studies of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Press, 2006. 326 p. (in Serbian).
Theis, Lioba; Mullett, Margaret (eds). Female Founders in Byzantium and Beyond. Wien; Köln: Böhlau Publ., 2011–2012. 464 p.
Underwood, Paul A. The Kariye Djami. Vol. 1: Historical introduction and description of the mosaics and frescoes. New York: Bollingen Foundation Publ., 1966. 321 p.