For citation: Sukina, Liudmila Borisovna. Saints who sailed from the sea: «German» model of foolishness in Old Russia, in Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana. 2023. № 1. Pp. 3-16. DOI https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu19.2023.101
|Title of the article||Saints who sailed from the sea: «German» model of foolishness in Old Russia|
|In the section||Commentarii / Articles|
|Type of article||RAR||Index UDK; BBK||UDK 930.1; BBK 63.3+60.03||Index DOI||https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu19.2023.101|
|Abstract||The article attempts to put forward and substantiate a hypothesis about the use of a special model of this feat in the formation of the cult of some holy fools of the Russian Church, borrowed not from the eastern, but from the western medieval religious culture. Some lives of Russian holy fools noticeably fall out of the Eastern Christian tradition, with which old and modern historiography links their hagiography. Despite the veneration of the Byzantine σαλος in Ancient Russia, in its religious life the practices of foolishness occupied a marginal position for a long time. In the process of formation and development of the «national» cult of holy fools in the Muscovite state, one of the options for explaining where such ascetics came from was their foreign origin. In the article this problem is considered on the material of the hagiography of Isidor of Rostov and Procopius of Ustyug. In their Lives, one can single out a topic that is common to them and unusual for Russian hagiography. Both saints are repeatedly referred to in the texts of their Lives as foreigners who previously lived in Western countries, «German land». Both found in the Orthodox faith their «spiritual fatherland» and abandoned the «Latinism». In the Lives of each of them, «foolishness» is explicated as the main religious practice. But this is not the «obscenity» of the Eastern Christian σαλος, but a desire for solitude and wandering close to the model of behavior of the saints of the Western Middle Ages. In both lives there is a motif of the sea. Based on the observations and arguments presented in the article, it can be assumed that the compilers of the hagiographies, creating the image of a holy fool-foreigner unknown to Old Russian literature before, were guided by hagiographic texts not only of Greek-Byzantine, but also of Western European origin, some of which were available in Slavic translations. The saturation of the texts with Novgorod plot details indicates that Novgorod, which had long-standing and extensive cultural ties both with the post-Byzantine world and with the countries of the Baltic region, could be the place for constructing this new model of holiness for Old Russia.|
|Keywords||Old Russia, history of holiness, hagiography, foolishness, holy fools-foreigners, cross-cultural communication, dialogism, historical memory, ancient Russia|
|Full text version of the article||Article language||Russian|
Budovnits, Isaak Urielevich. Yurodivye Drevney Rusi [Fools of Old Russia], in Voprosy istorii religii i ateizma [Questions of the history of religion and atheism]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1964. Vol. 12. Pp. 170–195. (in Russian).
Gladkova, Olesya Vladimirovna. Agiograficheskiy kanon i «zapadnaya tema» v «Zhitii Isidora Tverdislova, Rostovskogo Yurodivogo» [The Hagiographic Canon and the «Western Theme» in the «Life of Isidor Tverdislov, Fool of Rostov»], in Drevnyaya Rus’. Voprosy medievistiki [Old Rus’. Questions of medieval studies]. Moscow, 2001. No. 2 (4). Pp. 81–88. (in Russian).
Gladkova, Olesya Vladimirovna. Drevnerusskiy svyatoy, prishedshiy s Zapada (O maloizuchennom «Zhitii Isidora Tverdislova, rostovskogo yurodivogo») [Old Russian saint who came from the West (About the little-studied «Life of Isidor Tverdislov, fool of Rostov»)], in Gladkova, Olesya Vladimirovna (ed.). Drevnerusskaya literatura: Tema Zapada v XIII–XV vv. i povestvovatel’noye tvorchestvo [Old Russian literature: The theme of the West in the 13th–15th centuries and storytelling]. Moscow: «Azbukovnik» Publ., 2002. Pp. 167–210. (in Russian).
Gorodilin, Sergey Vladimirovich. Mezhdu «nemetsskoyu zemleyu» i Rostovom: Istoricheskie realii v Zhitii Isidora Tverdislova [Between «German Land» and Rostov: Historical Realian in the Life of Isidore of Rostov], in Slověne. Vol. 7. No. 2. Pp. 414–450. (in Russian). DOI 10.31168/2305-6754.2018.7.2.16
Dmitriev, Lev Aleksandrovich. Zhanr severnorusskih zhitiy [Genre of Northern Russian Lives], in Trudy Otdela drevnerusskoy literatury [Proceedings of the Department of Old Russian Literature]. Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1972. Vol. 27. Pp. 171–202. (in Russian).
Isidorova, Zoya Nikolaevna. O redakciyah zhitiya sv. Isidora Tverdislova [About the editions of the Life of St. Isidor Tverdislov], in Opyty po istochnikovedeniyu. Drevnerusskaya knizhnost’ [Source experience. Old Russian literacy]. Saint Petersburg: Nauka Publ., 2001. Vol. 4. Pp. 96–110. (in Russian).
Ivanov, Sergey. Holy Fools in Byzantium and Beyond. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 479 p.
Ivanov, Sergey Arkadyevich. Blazhennye pohaby. Kul’turnaya istoriya yurodstva [Blissful obscenities. Cultural history of foolishness]. Moscow: Yazyki slavyanskih kul’tur Publ., 2005. 448 p. (in Russian).
Ivanov, Sergej Arkadyevich. Vizantijskoe jurodstvo [Byzantine foolishness]. Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya Publ., 1994. 192 p. (in Russian).
Mathauserova, Světla. Prokopiy Sazavskiy i Prokopiy Ustyuzhskiy. K odnoy paralleli v istoricheskoy povestvovatel’noy literature [Procopius of Sava and Procopius of Ustyug. Toward a parallel in historical narrative literature], in Trudy Otdela drevnerusskoy literatury [Proceedings of the Department of Old Russian Literature]. Saint Petersburg: Dmitriy Bulanin Publ., 2006. Vol. 57. Pp. 161–165. (in Russian).
Moldovan, Aleksandr Mihaylovich. Zhitie Andreya Yurodivogo v slavyanskoy pis’mennosti [The Life of Andrey the Fool in slavic writing]. Moscow: «Azbukovnik» Publ., 2000. 759 p. (in Russian).
Müller, Ludolf. Rasskaz ob Isaakii i skazaniye «chto radi zovetsya Pecherskiy monastyr’» [The story about Isaac and the legend «why the monastery is called Pechersky»], in Trudy Otdela drevnerusskoy literatury [Proceedings of the Department of Old Russian Literature]. Saint Petersburg: Dmitriy Bulanin Publ., 2003. Vol. 54. Pp. 66–69. (in Russian).
Panchenko, Aleksandr Mihaylovich. Smeh kak zrelishhe [Laughter as a spectacle], in Lihachev, Dmitrij Sergeevich; Panchenko, Aleksandr Mihaylovich; Ponyrko, Natalyya Vladimirovna. Smeh v Drevnej Rusi [Laughter in Old Russia]. Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1974. Pp. 72–110. (in Russian).
Panchenko, Aleksandr Mihaylovich. Jurodivye na Rusi [Holy fools in Old Russia], in Panchenko, Aleksandr Mihaylovich. Russkaya istoriya i kul’tura: Raboty raznyh let [Russian history and culture: Works of different years]. Saint Petersburg: Yuna Publ., 1999. Pp. 392–407. (in Russian).
Tuminskaya, Olga Anatolyevna. Blazhennye i yurodivye v istorii, zhitii i izobrazitel’nom iskusstve [Blessed and holy fools in history, life and fine arts]. Saint Petersburg: Herzen University Publ., 2012. 207 p. (in Russian).
Tuminskaya, Olga Anatolyevna. Blazhennye i yurodivye v russkoy ikone XVI–XIX vekov [Blessed and holy fools in Russian icons of the 16th–19th centuries]. Saint Petersburg: Herzen University Publ., 2014. 203 p. (in Russian).
Ukolova, Viktoriya Ivanovna. Pervyi srednevekovyi entciklopedist [The first medieval encyclopedist], in Voprosy istorii [Questions of history]. 1983. No. 6. Pp. 185–188. (in Russian).
Uspenskiy, Boris Andreevich. Antipovedenie v kul’ture Drevney Rusi [Antibehavior in the culture of Old Russia], in Uspenskiy, Boris Andreevich. Izbrannye Trudy [Selected writings]. Moscow: Shkola «Yazyki russkoy kul’tury» Publ., 1994. Vol. 1. Pp. 320–332. (in Russian).
Vlasov, Andrey Nikolaevich. Zhitiynye povesti i skazanija o svyatyh yurodivyh Prokopii i Ioanne Ustyuzhskih [Hagiographic tales and legends about the holy fools Procopius and John of Ustyug]. Saint Petersburg: Oleg Abyshko Publ., 2010. 640 p. (in Russian).
Yurganov, Andrey Levovich. Ubit’ besa. Put’ ot Srednevekovya k Novomu vremeni [Kill the demon. The path from the Middle Ages to the New Age]. Moscow: Rossiyskiy gosudarstvennyy gumanitarnyy universitet Publ., 2006. 433 p. (in Russian).
Yurkov, Sergey Evgenyevich. Pod znakom groteska: Antipovedenie v russkoy kul’ture (XI – nachalo XX vv.) [Under the sign of the grotesque: antibehavior in Russian culture (11th – early 20th centuries)]. Saint Petersburg: Letniy sad Publ., 2003. 210 p. (in Russian).
Tags: ancient Russia, religious studies, 16th century, historical memory, medieval studies, COMMENTARII / ARTICLES, veneration of saints, Holy Cross, cultural studies, Communication, 15th century , 17th century, hagiography, Orthodox and Latins