Nemykina, Elena Aleksandrovna. Transformation of the Nemanichi’s ideology in the monuments of the Milutin era (1282–1321) in the conquered Macedonian territories

Published Date:

For citation: Nemykina, Elena Aleksandrovna. Transformation of the Nemanichi’s ideology in the monuments of the Milutin era (1282–1321) in the conquered Macedonian territories, in Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana. 2020. № 2. Pp. 89-106. DOI https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu19.2020.206

Title of the article Transformation of the Nemanichi’s ideology in the monuments of the Milutin era (1282–1321) in the conquered Macedonian territories 
Authors Nemykina, Elena Aleksandrovna — researcher, Scientific Research Institute of Theory and History of Architecture and Urban Planning, Moscow, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
In the section Commentarii / Articles
Year 2020 Issue Pages 89-106 
Type of article RAR Index UDK; BBK UDK 7.033.1;
BBK 85.143(3)
Index DOI 10.21638/spbu19.2020.206
Abstract This work is supported by the Russian Science Foundation under grant 20-18-00294 and performed in Scientific Research Institute of Theory and History of Architecture and Urban Planning, branch of the Central Institute for Research and Design of the Ministry of Construction and Housing and Communal Services of the Russian Federation.
This article is devoted to the problem of the influence of ideological attitudes on the iconographic programs of the medieval Macedonian monuments at the end of the 13th – the first quarter of the 14th century. This period is associated with the reign of the Serbian king Milutin (1282–1321), who conquered a number of Macedonian territories from Byzantium and married the daughter of the Byzantine emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus (1282–1328). Close kinship with the imperial family and Milutin’s active policy towards Byzantium become the key factors for the reorientation of Serbian ideology from a national platform to an imperial one.This article is devoted to the problem of the influence of ideological attitudes on the iconographic programs of the medieval Macedonian monuments at the end of the 13th – the first quarter of the 14th century. This period is associated with the reign of the Serbian king Milutin (1282–1321), who conquered a number of Macedonian territories from Byzantium and married the daughter of the Byzantine emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus (1282–1328). Close kinship with the imperial family and Milutin’s active policy towards Byzantium become the key factors for the reorientation of Serbian ideology from a national platform to an imperial one.The process of «byzantinization» affects all the areas of the life of the Serbian kingdom, including art. Establishing his presence in Macedonia, Milutin, with the help of the Greek masters, actively builds and restores churches, rebuilds the Greek buildings and invites the Greek artists, Michael and Eutychios, belonging to the progressive artistic movement to paint churches. Thus, the architectural and pictorial ensembles of this time arise within the framework of the Byzantine artistic tradition and correspond to the main currents of the Byzantine art. Fresco paintings are created in accordance with the stylistic principles of the advanced trends of the Paleologian Renaissance and are replete with fresh iconographic solutions, new semantic accents and compositions. Good preservation of the most of Milutin’s monuments ensured close attention of the researchers. However, with a thorough study of the Byzantine traditions in the Serbian cultural paradigm, the fact of embedding national specifics into the Byzantine imperial theme remained unnoticed, as evidenced by a number of the iconographic features of the monumental paintings considered in this article.Keywords: imperial theme, iconography, medieval fresco painting, national specifics, Milutin, ideology of Nemanichi, Macedonia, Serbian Kingdom, art, cultural studies, cultura of Medieval Ages.
Keywords imperial theme, iconography, medieval fresco painting, national specifics, Milutin, ideology of Nemanichi, Macedonia, Serbian Kingdom, art, cultural studies, cultura of Medieval Ages, medieval studies
Full text version of the article. Article language  Russian
Bibliography

Babić, Valentina. Freske u crkvi Svetog Mihaila u Stonu [The frescoes in the church of St. Michael in Ston]. Belgrade: Balkanoloshki institut SANU Press; Trebin’e: Eparhija zahumsko-hercegovachka i primorska Publ., 2014. 304 р. (in Serbian).

Babić, Gordana. Kraljeva crkva u Studenici [The King’s Church in Studenica]. Belgrade: Prosveta Publ.; Republichki zavod za zashtitu spomenika kulture Publ., 1987. 274 p. (in Serbian).

Babić, Gordana. Les chapelles annexes des églises byzantines. Paris: Klincksieck Publ., 1969. 191 p. (in French).

Babić, Gordana. O zhivopisnom ukrasu oltarskih pregrada [On the fresco decoration of the choir screen], in Zbornik za likovne umetnosti. 1975. No. 11. Pp. 1–41. (in Serbian).

Babić-Đorđević, Gordana; Đurić, Vojislav. Klasicizam doba Paleologa u srpskoj umetnosti [Paleologean classicism in the Serbian art], in Srpska umetnost u srednjem veku. 14–16 veka [The Serbian art in the Middle Ages. 14th–16th centuries]. Vol. 2. Belgrade: Srpska knjizhevna zadruga Publ., 1997. Pp. 5–47. (in Serbian).

Blagojević, Milosh. Srbija u doba Nemanjića. Od knezhevine do carstva: 1168–1371. Ilustrovana hronika [Serbia in the reign of Nemanjić. From the Principality to the Empire: 1168–1371. Illustrated chronicle]. Belgrade: TRZ «Vaјat» – IRO «Beograd» Publ., 1989. 283 p. (in Serbian).

Chirkovich, Sima. Istoriya serbov [History of Serbs]. Moscow: The Whole World Publ., 2009. 448 p. (in Russian).

Djurić, Vojislav. L’art des Paléologues et l’État serbe. Rôle de la Cour et de l’Église serbes dans la première moitié du XIV siècle [The art of the Paleologians and the Serbian state. Role of the Serbian Court and Church in the first half of the 14th century], in Art et Société à Byzance sous les Paléologues. Actes du Colloque organisé par l’Association Internationale des Études Byzantines à Venise en Septembre 1968. Venise, 1971. Pp. 179–191. (in French). Đorđievski, Dejan. O pitanju ucheshča Mihaila Astrape u oslikavanju hilandarskog katolikona [On the question of Mihailo Astrapa’s participation in the painting of the Hilandar Catholicon], in Zbornik Matice srpske za likovne umetnosti. 2012. No. 40. Pp. 9–18. (in Serbian).

Đurić, Vojislav. Portrety v izobrazheniyah rozhdestvenskikh stikhir [The portraits in the images of the Christmas hymns], in Vizantiya. Yuzhnye slavyane i Drevnyaya Rus’. Zapadnaya Evropa. Iskusstvo i kul’tura: Sbornik statey v chest’ V. N. Lazareva [Byzantium. Southern Slavs and the Old Russia. Western Europe. The art and culture: Collection of articles in honor of V. N. Lazarev]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1973. Pp. 244–255. (in Russian).

Đurić, Vojislav. Tri događaja u srpskoj drzhavi 14 veka i njihov odjek u slikarstvu [Three events in the Serbian state in the 14th century and their image in the painting], in Zbornik za likovne umetnosti. 1968. No. 4. Pp. 66–115. (in Serbian).

Đurić, Vojislav. Vizantiyskie freski. Srednevekovaya Serbiya, Dalmaciya, slavyanskaya Makedoniya [Byzantine frescoes. Medieval Serbia, Dalmatia, Slavic Macedonia]. Moscow: Indrik Publ., 2000. 592 p. (in Russian).

Žhivot kralja Milutina [The life of the king Milutin], in Arhiepiskop Danilo II. Žhivoti kraljeva i arhiepiskopa srpskih [Archbishop Daniel II. Lives of the Serbian kings and archbishops]. Belgrade: Srpska knjizhevna zadruga Publ.; Prosveta Publ., 1988. Pp. 109–150. (in Serbian).

Golubinskiy, Evgeniy Evsigneevich. Kratkiy ocherk istorii pravoslavnykh tserkvey Bolgarskoy, Serbskoy i Rumynskoy ili Moldo-Valashskoy [Brief review of the history of the Bulgarian, Serbian and Romanian or Moldo-Wallachian Orthodox Churches]. Moscow: University Print. (Katkov and K°), 1871. 734 p. (in Russian).

Grabar, Andre. Imperator v vizantiyskom iskusstve [The Emperor in the Byzantine art]. Moscow: Ladomir Publ., 2000. 328 p. (in Russian).

Grozdanov, Cvetan. Studii za ohridskiot zhivopis [Surveys on the Ohrid’s painting]. Skopje: Republichki zavod za zashtita na spomenicite na kulturata Publ., 1990. 238 p. (in Macedonian).

Fusteris, Giorgos. Meriki eklipsi Panselinu: mia anamenomeni ekpliksi [Partial eclipse of Panselinos: an expected surprise], in O naos tu Protatu ke o zografos tu: Erga sindirisis ke nea dedomena. Epistimoniki Imerida afieromeni ston Iero Nao tu Protatu stis Karies [Naos of Protat and his painter: Preservation works and new dating. Scientific Conference dedicated to the Holy Temple of Protatos in Karyes]. Thessaloniki: Mount Athos Center Publ., 2017. P. 17. (in Greek).

Jirechek, Konstantin. Istorija Srba [History of Serbs]. Belgrade: Nauchna knjiga Publ., 1952. 512 p. (in Serbian).

Lazarev, Viktor Nikitich. Istoriya vizantiyskoy zhivopisi [History of the Byzantine painting]. Moscow: Iskusstvo Publ., 1986. Vol. 1. 329 p. (in Russian).

Lazarev, Viktor Nikitich. Noviy pamyatnik v stankovoy zhivopisi 12 veka i obraz Georgiya-voina v vizantiyskom i drevnerusskom iskusstve [New monument in the easel painting of the 12th century and the image of St. George the Warrior in the Byzantine and Old Russian art], in Vizantiyskiy Vremennik. Vol. VI (31). 1953. Pp. 186–222. (in Russian).

Lukovnikova, Elena Aleksandrovna. Vetkhozavetnye proobrazovatel’nye syuzhety v vizantiyskoy monumental’noy zhivopisi vtoroy poloviny 13 – serediny 14 veka [The Old Testament prefiguration’s subjects in the Byzantine monumental painting of the second half of the 13th century – the middle of the 14th century]. PhD dissertation. State Institute of Art Studies. Moscow, 2003. 232 p. (in Russian).

Maltseva, Svetlana Vladislavovna. Pridely v serbskikh khramakh 13 – pervoy poloviny 14 veka [Subsidiary chapels in Serbian churches of the 13th – the first half of the 14th century], in Vizantiyskiy Vremennik. Vol. 71 (96). 2012. Pp. 177–199. (in Russian).

Maltseva, Svetlana Vladislavovna. Puti i formy zapadnoevropeyskikh vliyaniy v arkhitekture Serbii 14–15 vekov [Western influences in Serbian architecture of the 14th–15th centuries], in Zakharova, Anna Vladimirovna; Maltseva, Svetlana Vladislavovna; Stanyukovich-Denisova, Ekaterina Yuryevna (eds). Aktual’nye problemy teorii i istorii iskusstva. Vol. 6 [Actual Problems of Theory and History of Art: Collection of articles. Issue 6]. St. Petersburg: NP-Print Publ., 2016. Pp. 185–196. (in Russian).

Marinković, Chedomila. Slika podignute crkve. Predstave arhitekture na ktitorskim portretima u srpskoj i vizantijskoj umetnosti [The image of the built church. Representations of the architecture in the ktitor’s portraits in Serbian and Byzantine art]. Belgrade: Princip Bonart pres Publ.; Kragujevac: Centar za nauchna istrazhivanja SANU i Univerziteta u Kragujevacu Publ., 2007. 240 р. (in Serbian).

Marković, Miodrag. The Painter Eutychios — Father of Michael Astrapas and Protomaster of the Frescoes in the Church of the Virgin Peribleptos Ohrid? in Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo. Hudozhestvennaya zhizn’ Pskova i iskusstvo pozdnevizantiyskoy epokhi. K tysyachestoletiyu Pskova [Old Russian art. The art life of Pskov and the art of the late Byzantine era. To the 1100th anniversary of Pskov: Collection of articles]. Moscow: Severniy Palomnik Publ., 2008. Pp. 411–416.

Metohit, Teodor. Na dvoru srpskog kralja Milutina [At the court of the Serbian king Milutin]. Belgrade: Itaka Publ., 1998. 96 p. (in Serbian).

Miljkoviќ-Pepek, Petar. Deloto na zografite Mihailo i Eutihij [The works of artists Michael and Euthychus]. Skopje: Goce Delčev Publ., 1967. 288 р. (in Macedonian).

Millet, Gabriel. Recherches sur l’iconographie de l’Evangile aux XIV-e, XV-e et XVI-e siècles d’après les monuments de Mistra, de la Macédoine et du Mont-Athos [Research on the iconography of the Gospel in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries after the monuments of Mistra, Macedonia and Mount Athos]. Paris: E. de Boccard Publ., 1916. 1073 p. (in French). уточнить перевод на англ.

Popović, Danica. Srpski vladarski grob u srednjem veku [Serbian royal tomb in the Middle Ages]. Belgrade: Institut za istoriju umetnosti Filozofskog fakulteta Publ., 1992. 214 p. (in Serbian).

Preobrazhenskiy, Aleksandr Sergeevich. Ktitorskiy portret [Ktitor’s portraits], in Pravoslavnaya entsiklopediya [The Orthodox Encyclopedia]. Moscow: Tserkovno-nauchniy tsentr «Pravoslavnaya entsiklopediya» Publ., 2013. Vol. 39. Pp. 231–235. (in Russian).

Radojchić, Svetozar. Portreti srpskih vladara u srednjem veku [Portraits of Serbian rulers in the Middle Ages]. Belgrade: Republichki zavod za zashtitu spomenika kulture Publ., 1996. 231 p. (in Serbian).

Radojchić, Svetozar. Staro srpsko slikarstvo [The old Serbian painting]. Novi Sad: Akademska knjiga Publ.; Belgrade: Institut za teoloshka istrazhivanja Publ., 2010. 356 p. (in Serbian).

Rasolkoska-Nikolovska, Zagorka. Srednovekovnata umetnost vo Makedonija. Freski i ikoni [Medieval art in Macedonia. Frescoes and icons]. Skopje: Kalamus Publ., 2004. 664 р. (in Macedonian).

Todić, Branislav. Zidno slikarstvo u doba kralja Milutina [Monumental painting in the reign of king Milutin]. Belgrade: Kultura Publ., 1998. 395 p. (in Serbian).

Ćurčić, Slobodan. Architecture in the Balkans. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010. 913 p.

Vafiadis, Konstantinos. I tikhografis tu Nau tu Protatu: Erevnitika ksitimata meta tin sindirisi tus [The frescoes of the Protat Church: Research issues after their maintenance], in O naos tu Protatu ke o zografos tu: Erga sindirisis ke nea dedomena. Epistimoniki Imerida afieromeni ston Iero Nao tu Protatu stis Karies [Naos of Protat and his painter: Preservation works and new dating. Scientific Conference dedicated to the Holy Temple of Protatos in Karyes]. Thessaloniki: Mount Athos Center Publ., 2017. P. 12. (in Greek).

Voјvodić, Dragan. Loza Nemanjića [Nemanjić family tree], in Leksikon srpskog srednjog veka [Lexicon of the Serbian Middle Ages]. Belgrade: Knowledge Publ., 1999. Pp. 371–373 (in Serbian).

Voјvodić, Dragan. Srpska umetnost od pochetka 14 stoleća do propasti drzhave Nemanjića [Serbian art from the beginning of the 14th century until the fall of the state of Nemanjić], in Voјvodić, Dragan; Popović, Danica (eds). Sakralna umetnost srpskih zemalja u srednjem veku [Sacral art of the Serbian lands in the Middle Ages]. Belgrade: Službeni glasnik Publ., 2016. Pp. 271–297. (in Serbian).

Xyngopoulos, Andreas. Thessalonique et la peinture macédonienne [Thessaloniki and Macedonian painting]. Athens: M. Myrtidis Publ., 1955. 78 p. (in French).  

 

Tags: medieval studies, Serbia, COMMENTARII / ARTICLES, Macedonia, cultural studies, Art, architecture, NEMYKINA E. A.

  • Hits: 121