Lobin, Aleksey Nikolaevich. «Keys to the cities»: the Livonian war as a war of technology

Published Date:

For citation: Lobin, Aleksey Nikolaevich. «Keys to the cities»: the Livonian war as a war of technology, in Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana. 2019. № 2. Pp. 195-206. DOI https://doi.org/10.21638/11701/spbu19.2019.212

Title of the article «Keys to the cities»: the Livonian war as a war of technology 

Lobin, Aleksey Nikolaevich ― Ph. D. in History, Director of exhibition, excursion, research and educational departament of the National Congress palace, St. Petersburg, Russia, OrcID 0000-0001-7975-315X, Scopus ID 56292006600, SPIN-код 3986-0525, AuthorID 369344, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

In the section Disputatio / Discussion
Year 2019 Issue Pages  195-206
Type of article RAR Index UDK; BBK  

UDK 94(47).04=161.1(045)»0/2»(470+571); BBK 63.3(2)43



Abstract Firearms have significantly changed the face of wars in both Western and Eastern Europe. The
Livonian war, which unfolded in Europe in the sixteenth century, became a war of technology. The opponents used against each other the most advanced achievements in metallurgy and military Affairs. The author considers the production aspects of artillery weapons of the participants of the Livonian war — the Livonian order, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sweden and Russia. By the 1550s there is an integration of artillery technologies between Riga, Revel, Narva and the Order as a whole, on the one hand, and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, on the other. New items in the artillery business penetrated with some delay in Russia. All artillery «systems» of the countries participating in the Livonian war were connected with the German classification and nomenclature. According to the author, in the XVI century, artillery was the basis of the metallurgical industry, where iron-making and foundry production was concentrated. Artillery had an impact on the development of mining, saltpeter making, and gunpowder farming. The engineering part, the construction of fortresses and fortifications, also formed the branch of «artillery art». 

Livonian war, military affairs, gun yard, artillery, firecrackers, red-hot cores, military technology, 16th century

Full text version of the article. Article language  Russian
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Tags: 16th century, Russian-Livonian relations, DISPUTATIO / DISCUSSION, livonian question, military affairs, gun yard, artillery, firecrackers, red-hot cores, military technology