Penskoy, Vitaliy Viktorovich. The Big Game in Eastern Europe and the Problem of the Livonian Heritage in the Context of the Global Reorganization of the World in the Early Modern

Published Date:

 For citation: Penskoy, Vitaliy Viktorovich. The Big Game in Eastern Europe and the Problem of the Livonian Heritage in the Context of the Global Reorganization of the World in the Early Modern, in Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana. 2019. № 2. Pp. 207-220. DOI https://doi.org/10.21638/11701/spbu19.2019.213

Title of the article The Big Game in Eastern Europe and the Problem of the Livonian Heritage in the Context of the Global Reorganization of the World in the Early Modern 
Authors

Penskoy, Vitaliy Viktorovich — Doctor in History, Associate Professor, Belgorod National Research University, Belgorod, Russia, OrcID 0000-0002-4092-8992, Researcher ID S-7698-2016, Scopus ID 57190883623, SPIN-код 4719-8842, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In the section Disputatio / Discussion
Year 2019 Issue Pages 207-220 
Type of article RAR Index UDK, BBK  УДК 94(47).043, ББК 63.3(2)44 Index  10.21638/11701/spbu19.2019.213 
Abstract The author of the article attempted to place events in Eastern Europe in the «long 16th century» in the context of changes in Europe in the same decades. The most important events in this decade in Europe were the formation of a new world-system with the center in the north-west of the continent and the creation of an early modern state. Eastern Europe was drawn into these processes with some delay against central and northwestern Europe.These changes began to be felt here too by the middle of the 16th century. These changes have acquired a number of unique features in Russia. This peculiarity was due to the peculiarities of the political struggle in the region between the most important players ― Moscow, Vilna and Bakhchisarai. The main question was decided ― who will dominate the region in the course of this struggle. The Livonian foreign policy direction was secondary for Moscow at the same time. For the time being this state of affairs suited the Novgorod elite, the trade service and the church. It allowed her to maintain internal autonomy. However, since the early 50s. 16th century the growing crisis tendencies in the political and economic development of the region, connected with the processes of formation of the new European world-economy and internal problems, made it impossible to continue to maintain the old model of development. In an effort to prevent political complications in relations with the local elite, Moscow intervened in the Livonian crisis. This intervention led to two wars, Livonian 1558–1561 and Polotsk 1562–1572 years. These wars only aggravated the crisis. 
Keywords world-economy, early Modern, «composite state», Eastern Europe, Baltic, Russia, Livonia, Crimea, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ivan the Terrible
Full text version of the article. Article language  Russian
Bibliography
  • Acemoglu, Daron; Johnson, Simon; Robinson, James. The rise of Europe: Atlantic trade, institutional change, and economic growth, in American Economic Review. 2005. Vol. 94. No 3. Рp. 546–579.

    Alekseev, Yuriy Georgievich. Gosudar’ vseya Rusi [Sovereign of All Russia]. Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1991. 240 p. (in Russian).

    Alekseev, Yuriy Georgievich. Sudebnik Ivana III. Traditsiya i reforma [Codex of laws of Ivan III. Tradition and reform]. St. Petersburg: Dmitriy Bulanin Publ., 2001. 448 p. (in Russian).

    Anderson, Matthew Smith. The Origines of the Modern European State System, 1494–1618. London; New York: Longman Publ., 1998. 318 p.

    Angermann, Norbert. Studien zur Livlandpolitik Ivan Groznyjs [Study of the policy of Ivan the Terrible in Livonia]. Marburg/Lahn: J. G. Herder-Institut Publ., 1972. 134 p. (in German).

    Arakcheev, Vladimir Anatolyevich. Vlast’ i «zemlya». Pravitel’stvennaya politika v otnoshenii tyaglykh sos­loviy v Rossii vtoroy poloviny XVI – nachala XVII veka [Power and Land. The state policy on taxable estates in Russia in the second half of the 16th – early 17th cent.]. Moscow: Drevlekhranilishche Publ., 2014. 512 p. (in Russian).

    Attman, Artur. The Struggle for Baltic Markets. Powers in Conflict 1558–1618. Göteborg: Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhallet Publ., 1979. 232 s.

    Barkey, Karen. Empire of Difference. The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. 360 p.

    Bean, Richard. War and Birth of the Nation State, in The Journal of Economic History. 1973. Vol. 33. No 1 (Mar.). Рp. 203–221.

    Bennigsen, Alexandre. L’expedition turque contre Astrakhan en 1569, d’apres les Registres des «Affaires importantes» des Archives ottomans [The Turkish Expedition against Astrakhan in 1569, According to the Registers of “Important Affairs” of the Ottoman Archives], in Cahiers du Monde russe et sovietique. 1967. Vol. 8. No. 3 (Jul.–Sep.). Рp. 427–446 (in French).

    Bentsianov, Mikhail Mikhaylovich. «Knyazya, boyare i deti boyarskie». Sistema sluzhebnykh otnosheniy v Moskovskom gosudarstve v XV–XVI vv. [«Princes, boyars and boyars’ children». The system of official relations in the Moscow state in the 15th–16th centuries]. Moscow: Tsentrpoligraf Publ., 2019. 351 p. (in Russian).

    Berelowitch, André. La hierarchie des egaux. La noblesse russe d’Ancien Regime (XVI–XVII siecles) [The hierarchy of equals. The Russian nobility of the Old Regime (XVI – XVII centuries)]. Paris: Éd. du Seuil Publ., 2001. 475 p. (in French).

    Bessudnova, Marina Borisovna. Spetsifika i dinamika razvitiya russko-livonskikh protivorechiy v posledney treti XV veka [The specifics and dynamics of the development of the Russian-Livonian contradictions in the last third of the 15th century]. Lipetsk: Lipetsk State Pedagogical P. Semenov-Tyan-Shansky University Press, 2016. 464 p. (in Russian).

    Black, Jeremy. Kings, Nobles and Commoners. States and Societies in Early Modern Europe. A Revisionist History. London; New York: I. B. Tauris Publ., 2004. 208 p.

    Bovykin, Vladimir Valentinovich. Mestnoe samoupravlenie v Russkom gosudarstve XVI v. [Local government in the Russian state in the 16th century]. St. Petersburg: Dmitriy Bulanin Publ., 2012. 421 p. (in Russian).

    Breen, Michael. Patronage, Politics, and the «Rule of Law» in Early Modern France, in Proceedings of the Western Society for French History. 2005. Vol. 33. Pp. 95–113.

    Brewer, John. The sinews of power. War, money and the English state, 1688–1783. London: Unwin Hyman Publ., 1989. 253 р.

    Chaunu, Pierre. La Civilisation de l’Europe classique [The Civilization of Classical Europe]. Paris: Edité par Arthaud Publ., 1984. 509 p. (in French).

    Chernov, Sergey Zaremovich. Volok Lamskiy v XIV – pervoy polovine XVI v. Struktury zemlevladeniya i formirovanie voenno-sluzhiloy korporatsii [Volok Lamsky in the 14th – first half of the 16th century. Structure of land ownership and the formation of the military service corporation]. Moscow: Institute of Archaeology (RAS) Press, 1998. 543 p. (in Russian).

    Cohen, Esther. The crossroads of justice: law and culture in late medieval France. Leiden: E. J. Brill Publ., 1993. 231 p.

    Donnert, Erich. Rossiya i baltiyskiy vopros v politike Germanii 1558–1583 gg. [Russia and the Baltic question in German policy in 1558–1583], in Istoricheskie zapiski. Vol. 76. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1964. Pp. 175–215. (in Russian).

    Downing, Brian M. Constitutionalism, Warfare, and Political Change in Early Modern Europe, in Theory and Society. Vol. 17. No. 1 (Jan., 1988). Рp. 7–56.

    Elliott, John. A Europe of Composite Monarchies, in Past & Present. 1992. No. 137. The Cultural and Politi­cal Construction of Europe. Рp. 48–71.

    Esper, Thomas. Russia and the Baltic 1494–1558, in Slavic Review. Vol. 25. No. 3 (Sep., 1966). Рp. 458–474.

    Filyushkin, Aleksandr Ilyich. Izobretaya pervuyu voynu Rossii i Evropy: Baltiyskie voyny vtoroy poloviny XVI v. glazami sovremennikov i potomkov [Making the First War between Russia and Europe: Baltic wars of the second half of the 16th cent. in opinion of contemporaries and descendants]. St. Petersburg: Dmitriy Bulanin Publ., 2013. 880 p. (in Russian).

    Filyushkin, Aleksandr Ilyich. Prichiny «Polotskogo vzyatya» 1563 g. glazami sovremennikov i potomkov [Causes «Polotsk take» in 1563 through the eyes of contemporaries and descendants], in Vestnik Sankt- Peterburgskogo universiteta. 2005. Ser. 2. Istoriya. Issue 3. Pp. 20–31. (in Russian).

    Halperin, Charles J. Muscovy as a Hypertrophic State: A Critique, in Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History. 2002. Vol. 3. No 3. Summer (New Series). Рp. 501–507.

    Karaman, Kivanç Kamill; Pamuk, Şevket. Different Paths to the Modern State in Europe: The Interaction Between Warfare, Economic Structure, and Political Regime, in The American Political Science Review. 2013. Vol. 107. No. 3 (August). Рp. 603–626.

    Kazakova, Natalya Aleksandrovna. O polozhenii Novgoroda v sostave Russkogo gosudarstva v kontse XV – pervoy polovine XVI v. [On the position of Novgorod in the Russian state at the end of the 15th – the first half of the 16th century], in Rossiya na putyakh tsentralizatsii. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1982. 296 p. (in Russian).

    Kennedy, Paul. The Rise and Fall of Great Powers. Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000. New York: Random House Publ., 1987. 677 p.

    Khoroshkevich, Anna Leonidovna. Rossiya v sisteme mezhdunarodnykh otnosheniy serediny XVI veka [Rus­sia in the system of international relations in the Middle of the 16th cent.]. Moscow: Drevlekhranilishche Publ., 2003. 620 p. (in Russian).

    Khoroshkevich, Anna Leonidovna. Rus’ i Krym: Ot soyuza k protivostoyaniyu. Konets XV – nachalo XVI vv. [Rus’ and Crimea: from the alliance to the confrontation]. Moscow: Editorial URSS Publ., 2001. 336 p. (in Russian).

    Kivelson, Valery. Autocracy in the Provinces. The Muscovite Gentry and Political Culture in the Seven­teenth Century. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996. 372 p.

    Kivelson, Valery. On Words, Sources, and Historical Method: Which Truth about Muscovy? in Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History. Vol. 3. No. 3. Summer 2002 (New Series). Рp. 487–499.

    Koenigsberger, Helmut. Monarchies and Parliaments in Early Modern Europe Dominium Regale or Domi­nium Politicum et Regale, in Theory and Society. 1978. Vol. 5. No. 2. Рp. 191–217.

    Kollmann, Nancy Shields. Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Russia. Cambridge: Cambridge Univer­sity Press, 2012. 503 p.

    Krom, Mikhail Markovich. Gosudarstvo rannego Novogo vremeni: obshcheevropeyskaya model’ i regional’nye otlichiya [The state of early modern times: the pan-European model and regional differences], in Novaya i noveyshaya istoriya. 2016. No. 4. Pp. 3–15 (in Russian).

    Krom, Mikhail Markovich. Rozhdenie gosudarstva: Moskovskaya Rus’ XV–XVI vekov [ Birth of the state: Moscow Russia 15-16 centuries]. Moscow: Novoye literaturnoye obozreniye Publ., 2018. 256 p. (in Russian).

    Lachmann, Richard. Elite Self-Interest and Economic Decline in Early Modern Europe, in American Socio­logical Review. Vol. 68. No. 3 (Jun., 2003). Рp. 346–372.

    MacKenney, Richard. Sixteenth Century Europe. Expansion and Conflict. London Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. 425 p.

    Mankov, Arkadiy Georgievich. Tseny i ikh dvizhenie v Russkom Gosudarstve XVI veka [Prices and their movement in the Russian State of the 16th century]. Moscow; Leningrad: Academy of Sciences of the USSR Press, 1951. 274 p. (in Russian).

    Mann, Michael. The autonomous power of the state: its origins, mechanisms and results, in European Jour­nal of Sociology / Archives Europeеnnes de Sociologie / Europaisches Archiv fur Soziologie. 1984. Vol. 25. No. 2. Tending the roots: nationalism and populism. Рp. 185–213.

    McNeill, William. The Rise of the West. A History of Human Community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963. 829 p.

    O’Brien, Patrick K. Fiscal and Financial Preconditions for the Formation of Developmental States in the West and the East from the Conquest of Ceuta (1415) to the Opium War (1839), in Journal of World History. 2012. Vol. 23. No. 3 (September). Рp. 513–553.

    Parrott, David. The Constraints on Power: Recent Works on Early Modern European History, in European History Quarterly. 1990. Vol. 20. Pp. 101–109.

    Penskoy, Vitaliy Viktorovich. Russkaya Smuta nachala XVII v. — lokal’noe yavlenie ili chast’ obshche­mirovogo protsessa? [Russian Smoot beginning of the 17th century ― a local phenomenon or part of a global process?], in Smutnoe vremya v Rossii: konflikt i dialog kul’tur. Materialy nauchnoy konferentsii, Sankt-Peterburg, 12–14 oktyabrya 2012 goda. St. Petersburg, 2012. (Trudy Istoricheskogo fakulteta SPbGU. Vol. 10). Pp. 199–204. (in Russian).

    Poe, Marshall. The Truth about Muscovy, in Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History. 2002. Vol. 3. No. 3 (New Series). Рp. 473–486.

    Polekhov, Sergey Vladimirovich. Nasledniki Vitovta. Dinasticheskaya voyna v Velikom knyazhestve Litovs­kom v 30-e gody XV veka [The inheritors of Vytautas. Dynastic struggle in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 1430th]. Moscow: Indrik Publ., 2015. 712 p. (in Russian).

    Rustemeyer, Angela. Systems and Senses: New Research on Muscovy and the Historiography on Early Modern Europe, in Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History. 2010. Vol. 11. No. 3. Summer (New Series). Рp. 563–579.

    Shaposhnik, Vyacheslav Valentinovich. Tserkovno-gosudarstvennye otnosheniya v Rossii v 30–80-e gody XVI veka [Church-state relations in Russia in the 30s–80s of the 16th century]. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg University Press, 2006. 569 p. (in Russian).

    Strayer, Joseph Reese. On the Medieval Origins of the Modern State. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970. 114 p.

    Svensson, Sven. Den merkantia bakgrunden till Rysslands antal på den Livländska Ordenstaten 1558: En studie till dem Ryska Imperialismens uppkomshistoria [The Mercantile Background to Russia’s relations with the Livonian Order State 1558: A Study of the Emerging History of Russian Imperialism]. Lund: C.W.K. Gleerup, 1951. 178 p. (in Swedish).

    Tilly, Charles. Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 9901990. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Publ., 1990. 269 p.

    Trepavlov, Vadim Vintserovich. Tyurkskie narody Evrazii i Osmanskaya imperiya v XVI v. [Turkic peoples of Eurasia and the Ottoman Empire], in Vostochnaya Evropa Srednevekov’ya i rannego Novogo vremeni glazami frantsuzskikh issledovateley. Kazan: Institute of History Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan Press, 2009. Pp. 7–34 (in Russian).

    Vinogradov, Aleksandr Vadimovich. Russko-krymskie otnosheniya: 50-e – vtoraya polovina 70-kh godov XVI veka [Russian-Crimean relations: 50th – the second half of the 70th of the 16th cent.]. Moscow: Institute of Russian History (RAS) Press, 2007. 198 p. (in Russian).

    Wallerstein, Immanuel. The Modern World-System I. Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. New York; San Francisco; London: Academic Press, 1974. 410 p.

    Zimin, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich. Rossiya na poroge novogo vremeni. (Ocherki politicheskoy istorii Rossii pervoy treti XVI v.) [Russia on the threshold of a new time (essays on the political history of Russia in the first third of the 16th century)]. Moscow: Mysl’ Publ., 1972. 452 p. (in Russian).

 

Tags: Livonia, Middle Ages, Ivan the Terrible, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Disputatio / Discussion, Eastern Europe, Russia, livonian question, early Modern, «composite state», Baltic, Crimea