Pape, C. The title of Ivan III according to late-medieval Danish sources

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Title of the article The title of Ivan III according to late-medieval Danish sources
Authors Pape, Carsten — candidatus magisterii in History and Russian Philology, lecturer and former Associate Academic Director, Danish Institute for Study Abroad, Denmark, Copenhagen, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Scopus ID 53564415200
In the section Fontes / Historical Sources
Year 2016 Issue 2 Pages 65-75
Type of article RAR Index UDK; BBK 94(47); 63.3(2) DOI 10.21638/11701/spbu19.2016.205
Abstract The first treaty between Denmark and Muscovy was concluded in 1493, to be followed by further treaties in 1506 and 1516. Based on extant copies of the Danish letters of treaty and the early correspondence between Vasiliy III and Danish King Hans, the article scrutinizes the Danish version of Ivan III’s title (in Latin), in particular the inclusion of the term imperator (i. e. tsar) in the title. At first glance, the use of the term seems unlikely, both in the general context of late-medieval Catholic notions of empire, and because Ivan III did not use tsar as part of his title in communications with European sovereign princes. As it turns out, however, he used it consistently in his diplomatic dealings (through his Novgorod namestniki) with the less sovereign political subjects of the Baltic region, and there is reason to conclude, as does the article, that he persuaded or forced the Danish envoy to Moscow in the summer of 1493 to include the term in his full title ― a fact which would mean the recognition by the sovereign monarch of Denmark, Norway and (soon-to-be) Sweden of the Muscovite Grand Prince as co-equal with the Holy Roman Emperor in terms of rank. This was a first step on the road to general European recognition of the imperial title of the rulers of Russia — and no mean achievement on the part of Ivan III.
Keywords Ivan III, Vasiliy III, tsar title, imperial title, Latin title, Danish-Russian treaties
Full text version of the article. Article language Russian
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Tags: FONTES / HISTORICAL SOURCES, Vasiliy III, tsar title, imperial title, Latin title, Danish-Russian treaties, PAPE C.