Alimov D. E. The Croats, cult of Perun, and Slavic «Gentilismus». (A commentary to Ante Milošević’s hypothesis on the identity of Porin and Perun)

Modified Date
Published Date:

Tags: gens, origo gentis, ethnogenesis, Commentarii / Articles

Title of the article

The Croats, cult of Perun, and Slavic «Gentilismus» (A commentary to Ante Milošević’s hypothesis on the identity of Porin and Perun)

Authors Alimov, Denis Evgenievich — St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia, PhD in History, Associate Professor, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
In the section Commentarii / Articles
Year 2015 Issue 2 Pages 21-64
Type of article RAR Index UDK 94(497.5) Index BBK 63.3(0)4
Abstract The article discusses in a broad comparative historical context the hypothesis by the Croatian scholar Ante Milošević, according to which the legendary Croatian ruler Porin mentioned in the 30th chapter of the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus’s treatise De administrando imperio (mid-10th century) is identical to Perun, the old-Slavic god of thunder. The author draws attention to the fact that the proposed identification fits well to the fact that in the story of the 30th chapter there are structural elements typical for early medieval narratives of the genre «origo gentis». The author of the article demonstrates that the interpretation of the story of the 30th chapter on the Croats’ relations with the Franks within the methodological paradigm of the ethnogenesis theory by R. Wenskus and the so-called Viennese school is in line with anthropological approaches that reinforces Ante Milošević’s hypothesis. The author attempts to interpret the appearance of Perun in the Croat tradition in the context of the formation of the Croat gentile kingdom as a result of the weakening of the Frankish control over Dalmatia about the year 828. The author points to the area of Kaštela as a possible base of anti-Frankish elite that came to power in Dalmatia in the second quarter of the 9th century.
Keywords Porin, Perun, ethnogenesis, gens, origo gentis
Full text version of the article. Article language Russian
References
  • Alimov, Denis Evgenievich. Khorvaty i gory: K voprosu o kharaktere khorvatskoy identichnosti v Avarskom kaganate [The Croats and mountains: On the problem of the Croat identity within the Avar qaganate], in Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana. 2010. № 2 (8). P. 135–160. (in Russian).

    Alimov, Denis Evgenievich. «Pereselenie» i «kreshchenie»: K probleme formirovaniya khorvatskoy etnich­nosti v Dalmatsii [«Migration» and «conversion»: On the formation of the Croat ethnicity in Dalmatia], in Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana. 2008. № 2 (4). P. 94–116. (in Russian).

    Alimov, Denis Evgenievich. Gotskaya teoriya proiskhozhdeniya khorvatov: Pro et contra [The Gothic the­ory of Croat origins: Pro et contra], in Voprosy istorii slavyan. Voronezh: Voronezh State University Press, 2013. Issue 21. P. 55–74. (in Russian).

    Alimov, Denis Evgenievich. Khorvatskaya identichnost’ v rannee Srednevekov’e: Problema interpretatsii [The Croat identity in the early Middle Ages: The problem of interpretation], in Vestnik SPbGU. Ser. 2. 2013. Issue 4. P. 99–108. (in Russian).

    Alimov, Denis Evgenievich. Politiya Borny: Gentes i Herrschaft v Dalmatsii v pervoy chetverti IX veka [Borna’s polity: Gentes and Herrschaft in Dalmatia in the first quarter of the 9th century], in Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana. 2011. № 1 (9). P. 101–142. (in Russian).

    Ančić, Mladen. Od vladarske curtis do gradskoga kotara. Bijaći i crkva sv. Marte od početka 9. do početka 13. stoljeća [From the reignal curtis to the town borough. Bijaći and St. Marta’s church from the early 9th to early 13th century], in Starohrvatska prosvjeta. Ser. III. 1999. Vol. 26. P. 189–236. (in Croatian).

    Ančić, Mladen. Ranosrednjovjekovni Neretvani ili Humljani: Tragom zabune koju je prouzročilo djelo De administrando imperio [The early medieval Narentines or Chulmians. Tracing the confusion caused by the De administrando imperio], in Lučić, I. (ed.). Hum i Hercegovina kroz povijest. Zbornik radova. Vol. I. Zagreb: Hrvatski institut za povijest, 2011. P. 217–278. (in Croatian).

    Ančić, Mladen. Zamišljanje tradicije: Vrijeme i okolnosti postanka 30. glave djela De administrando impe­rio [Imagining the tradition: When and why the 30th chapter of the De administrando imperio was written], in Radovi Zavoda za hrvatsku povijest. 2010. Vol. 42. P. 133–152 (in Croatian).

    Anichkov, Evgeniy Vasil’evich. Yazychestvo i drevnyaya Rus’ [Paganism and ancient Rus’]. Reprinted edi­tion of 1914. Moscow: «Indrik» Publ., 2003. 440 p. (in Russian).

    Barada, Miho. Hrvatski vlasteoski feudalizam po Vinodolskom zakonu [The Croatian nobiliary feudalism according to the Vinodol statute]. Zagreb: Jugoslavenska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, 1952. 133 p. (in Croatian).

    Basić, Ivan. Neka pitanja tekstualne transmisije izvora Porfirogenetovih poglavlja o Dalmaciji [Some issues concerning the textual transmission of Porphyrogenitus’ sources for the chapters on Dalmatia in the De administrando imperio], in Radovi Zavoda za hrvatsku povijest. 2012. Vol. 44. P. 175–196. (in Croatian).

    Belaj, Vitomir; Belaj, Juraj. Sveti trokuti. Topografija hrvatske mitologije [Sacred triangles. The topography of Croatian mythology]. Zagreb: Ibis grafika: Institut za arheologiju: Matica hrvatska Publ., 2014. 483 p. (in Croatian).

    Belkov, Pavel Lyudvigovich. «Epos migratsiy» v sisteme atributov traditsionnoy vlasti [«Migration Epos» in the system of attributes of traditional power], in Popov, Vladimir Aleksandrovich (ed.). Simvoly i atributy vlasti: Genezis, semantika, funktsii [Symbols and attributes of power: Genesis, semantics, functions]. St. Petersburg: Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (RAS) (Kunstkamera) Publ., 1996. P. 63–71. (in Russian).

    Borri, Francesco. White Croatia and the arrival of the Croats: An interpretation of Constantine Porphyrogenitus on the oldest Dalmatian history, in Early Medieval Europe. 2011. Vol. 19 (2). P. 204–231.

    Bowlus, Charles R. Ethnogenesis models and the age of migrations: A critique, in Austrian History Yearbook. 1995. Vol. XXVI. P. 147–164.

    Bowlus, Charles R. Ethnogenesis: The tyranny of a concept, in Gillett, Andrew (ed.). On barbarian identity: Critical approaches to ethnicity in the early Middle Agest. Turnhout: Brepols Publ., 2002. P. 241–256.

    Budak, Neven. Prva stoljeća Hrvatske [Croatia’s first centuries]. Zagreb: Hrvatska sveučilišna naklada Publ., 1994. 248 p. (in Croatian).

    Budak, Neven. Hrvati u ranom srednjem vijeku [Croats in the early Middle Ages], in Šanjek, Franjo (ed.). Povijest Hrvata. Knj. 1: Srednji vijek [History of the Croats. Vol. I: Middle Ages]. Zagreb: Školska knjiga Publ., 2003. P. 49–79. (in Croatian).

    Budak, Neven. Identities in early medieval Dalmatia (7th–11th century), in Garipzanov, Ildar H.; Geary, Patrick J.; Urbańczyk, Przemysław (eds). Franks, Northmen, and Slavs: Identities and state formation in early medieval Europe. Turnhout: Brepols Publ., 2008. P. 223–241.

    Budak, Neven. Tumačenje podrijetla Hrvata i najstarije povijesti Hrvata u djelima srednjovjekovnih pisaca [The interpretation of the origins and oldest history of the Croats in the works of medieval authors], in Budak, Neven (ed.). Etnogeneza Hrvata [Ethnogenesis of the Croats]. Zagreb: Nakladni zavod Matice hrvatske: Zavod za hrvatsku povijest Filozofskog fakulteta, 1995. P. 73–78. (in Croatian).

    Budimir, Milan. Porfirogenit i naša narodna tradicija [Porphyrogenitus and our volk tradition], in Glasnik Srpske akademije nauka. 1949. Vol. I. No. 1–2. P. 243–245. (in Serbian).

    Burić, Tonči. Perunovo brdo (monte Borun) — prilog poznavanju poganske slavenske toponimije u Kaštelima [Perun mountain (monte Borun) — a contribution to studies on pagan Slavic toponyms in Kaštela], in Starohrvatska prosvjeta. Ser. III. 2011. Vol. 38. P. 59–82. (in Croatian).

    Burić, Tonči. Villa sancti Georgii de Putalio, in Starohrvatska prosvjeta. Ser. III. 1984. Sv. 14. P. 305–324. (in Croatian).

    Bystrický, Peter. Longobardskí králi 488–572 [Lombard kings 488–572], in Vojenska historia. Časopis pre vojensku historiu, muzejnictvo a archivnictvo. Bratislava, 2007. Vol. 11 (2). P. 3–21. (in Slovak).

    Curta, Florin. The making of the Slavs: Between ethnogenesis, invention, and migration, in Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana. 2008. № 2 (4). P. 155–172.

    Dümmler, Ernst. Über die älteste Geschichte der Slawen in Dalmatien. (549–928.) [On the early his­tory of the Slavs in Dalmatia (549–928)], in Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch-historischen Clasee der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften [Proceedings of the philosophical-historical class of the Imperial Academy of Sciences]. Wien: W. Baumüller Publ., 1856. Vol. XX. P. 353–430. (in German).

    Dzino, Deniel. «Stanovitsya slavyaninom», «stanovitsya khorvatom»: Novye napravleniya v issledovanii identichnostey pozdneantichnogo i rannesrednevekovogo Illirika [«Becoming Slav», «becoming Croat»: New trends in studies of identities of late antique and early medieval Illyricum], in Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana. № 2 (4). 2008. P. 37–58. (in Russian).

    Dzino, Danijel. Becoming Slav, becoming Croat:Iidentity transformations in post-Roman and early medieval Dalmatia. Leiden: Brill Publ., 2010. 272 p.

    Dzino, Danijel. Local knowledge and wider contexts: stories of the arrival of the Croats in De Administrando Imperio in the past and present, in Dzino, Danijel; Parry, Ken (eds). Byzantium, its neighbours and its cultures (Byzantina Australiensia 20). Sydney: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 2014. P. 89–104.

    Dzino, Danijel. Novi pristupi izučavanju ranog hrvatskog identiteta [New approaches to studies on the early Croat identity], in Radovi Zavoda za hrvatsku povijest. 2009. Vol. 41. P. 33–54. (in Croatian).

    Dzino, Danijel. Pričam ti priču: Ideološko-narativni diskursi o dolasku Hrvata u De administrando imperio [Telling the stories: Ideological-narrative discources on the Croat migrations in De administrando imperio], in Radovi Zavoda za hrvatsku povijest. 2010. Vol. 42. P. 153–165. (in Croatian).

    Florya, Boris Nikolaevich. Issledovaniya po istorii Tserkvi. Drevnerusskoe i slavyanskoe srednevekov’e [Studies on the history of the Russian church. Old-Russian and Slavic Middle Ages]. Moscow: Pravoslavnaya entsiklopediya Publ., 2007. 436 p. (in Russian).

    Giejsztor, Aleksander. Mifologiya slavyan [The Slavs’ mythology]. Moscow: Ves’ Mir» Publ., 2014. 384 p. (in Russian).

    Gillett, Andrew. Ethnogenesis: A contested model of early medieval Europe, in History Compass. 2006. Vol. 4. P. 241–260.

    Gillett, Andrew. Was ethnicity politicized in the earliest medieval kingdoms?, in Gillett, Andrew (ed.). On barbarian identity: Critical approaches to ethnicity in the early Middle Ages. Turnhout: Brepols Publ., 2002. P. 85–121.

    Goffart, Walter. Does the distant past impinge on the Invasion Age Germans?, in Gillett, Andrew (ed.). On barbarian identity: Critical approaches to ethnicity in the early Middle Agest. Turnhout: Brepols Publ., 2002. P. 21–37.

    Goffart, Walter. The narrators of barbarian history (A. D. 550–800): Jordanes, Gregory of Tours, Bede, and Paul the Deacon. Princeton (New Jersey): Princeton University Press, 1988. 512 p.

    Grafenauer, Bogo. Prilog kritici izvještaja Konstantina Porfirogeneta o doseljenju Hrvata [A contribution to the critical analysis of Constantine Porphyrogenitus’s accounts on the arrival of the Croats], in Historijski zbornik. 1952. Vol. V. No. 1–2. P. 1–56. (in Croatian).

    Grafenauer, Bogo. Vprašanje konca Kocljeve vlade v Spodnji Panoniji [The question of the end of Kocel’s rule in Lower Pannonia], in Zgodovinski časopis. 1952–1953. Vol. VI–VII (Kosov zbornik). P. 171–190. (in Slovenian).

    Guldescu, Stanko. History of medieval Croatia. The Hague: Mouton Publ., 1964. 351 p.

    Hauptmann, Ljudmil. Dolazak Hrvata [The Croats’ arrival], in Zbornik kralja Tomislava (Posebna izdanja Jugoslavenske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti. Knj. 17) [A collection of essays in honour of king Tomislav (Special editions of the Yugoslav academy of sciences and arts. Vol. 17)]. Zagreb: Jugoslavenska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti Publ., 1925. P. 86–127. (in Croatian).

    Hauptmann, Ljudmil. Koje su sile hrvatske povijesti odlučivale u vrijeme narodne dinastije [What forces of the Croatian history were decisive in the time of the national dynasty], in Zbornik kralja Tomislava (Posebna izdanja Jugoslavenske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti. Knj. 17) [A collection of essays in honour of king Tomislav (Special editions of the Yugoslav academy of sciences and arts. Vol. 17)]. Zagreb: Jugoslavenska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti Publ., 1925. P. 165–187. (in Croatian).

    Hauptmann, Ljudmil. Konstantin Porfirogenit o porijeklu stanovništva dubrovačkoga zaleđa [Constantine Porphyrogenitus on the origin of the population of Dubrovnik’s hinterland], in Zbornik iz dubrovačke prošlosti: Milanu Rešetaru o 70-oj godišnjici života prijatelji i učenici [A collection of essays on Dubrovnik’s past: For Milan Rešetar on occasion of his 70th anniversary from their friends and disciples]. Dubrovnik: Jadran Publ., 1931. P. 17–24 (in Croatian).

    Hauptmann, Ljudmil. Mejna grofija spodnjepanonska [Lower Pannonian border county], in Razprave znanstvenega društva za humanistične vede v Ljubljani. 1923. Vol. 1. P. 311–357 (in Slovenian).

    Hauptmann, Ljudmil. Podrijetlo hrvatskoga plemstva [Origins of the Croatian nobility], in Rad Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti. 1942. Vol. 273. P. 19–112 (in Croatian).

    Heather, Peter J. Ethnicity, group identity, and social status in the Migration period, in Garipzanov, Ildar H.; Geary, Patrick J.; Urbańczyk, Przemysław (eds). Franks, Northmen, and Slavs: Identities and state formation in early medieval Europe. Turnhout: Brepols Publ., 2008. P. 17–49.

    Hedeager, Lotte. Cosmological endurance: Pagan identities in early Christian Europe, in Journal of European Archaeology. 1998. Vol. 3. P. 383–397.

    Hedeager, Lotte. Migration period Europe: The formation of a political mentality, in Thews, F.; Nelson, J. L. (eds.). Rituals of power: From Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages (The Transformation of the Roman World. Vol. 8). Leiden; Boston; Köln: Brill Publ., 2000. P. 15–57.

    Hedeager, Lotte. The creation of Germanic identity. A European origin myth, in Brun, P.; Leeuw, S. Van der; Whittaker, C. (eds.). Frontiéres d’Empire. Nature et signification des frontiéres romaines. Nemours, 1993. P. 121–132.

    Hobsbawm, Eric; Ranger, Terence (eds). The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. 320 p.

    Ivanišević, Milan. Otok hrvatskoga vladara [The Croat ruler’s island], in Tusculum. 2008. Vol. 1. P. 109–124 (in Croatian).

    Ivanov, Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich. K etimologii baltskogo i slavyanskogo nazvaniya boga groma [On the etimology of the Baltic and Slavic name of the deity of thunder], in Voprosy slavyanskogo yazykoznaniya. Moscow: Academy of Sciences of the USSR Press, 1958. Vol. 3. P. 110–111 (in Russian).

    Ivanov, Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich; Toporov, Vladimir Nikolaevich. Issledovaniya v oblasti slavyanskih drevnostey [Studies in the sphere of Slavic antiquities]. Moscow: «Nauka» Publ., 1974. 342 p. (in Russian).

    Izmaylov, Iskander Lerunovich. Srednevekovye bulgary: Etnopoliticheskaya i etnokonfessional’naya obschnost’ [Medieval Bulgars: An ethno-political and ethno-confessional community], in Istoriya tatar s drevneyshih vremen v semi tomah. Т. II. Volzhskaya Bulgariya i Velikaya Step’ [History of Tatars from the ancient times in seven volumes. Vol. II. Volga Bulgaria and the Great Steppe]. Kazan: «RuhIL» Publ., 2006. P. 631–649. (in Russian).

    Kalhous, David. Anatomy of a Duchy. The Political and Ecclesiastical Structures of Early Přemyslid Bohemia. Leiden; Boston: Brill Publ., 2012. 350 p.

    Kasperski, Robert. Problem etnogenezy Gotów w ujęciu Herwiga Wolframa: Refleksje nad metodą [Problem of the othic ethnogenesis in Herwig Wolfram’s interpretation: Reflections on the method], in Kwartalnik his­toryczny. 2011. Vol. 118/3. P. 399–430. (in Polish).

    Kasperski, Robert. Teodoryk Wielki i Kasjodor. Studia nad tworzeniem «tradycji dynastycznej Amalów» [Theoderic the Great and Cassiodorus. Studies on the formation of the «Amals Dynastic Tradition»]. Cracow: Universitas Publ., 2013. 298 p. (in Polish).

    Katičić, Radoslav. «Bog Hrvata» u Konstantina Porfirogeneta [The «God of the Croats» in Constantine Porphyrogenitus’], Zbornik u čast Petru Skoku o stotoj obljetnici rođenja (1881–1956) [A collection of essays in honour of Petar Skok on occasion of the 100th anniversary of the birth-date]. Zagreb: Jugoslavenska aka­demija znanosti i umjetnosti Publ., 1985. P. 237–247. (in Croatian).

    Katičić, Radoslav. Božanski boj — tragovima svetih pjesama naše pretkršćanske starine [The divine battle — tracing the sacred tales of our pre-Christian past]. Zagreb; Mošćenička Draga: Ibis grafika: Odsjek za etnologiju i kulturnu antropologiju Filozofskog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu: Katedra čakavskog sabora Općine Mošćenička draga Publ., 2008. 386 p. (in Crotian).

    Katičić, Radoslav. Vetustiores ecclesiae spalatensis memoriae, in Starohrvatska prosvjeta. Ser. III. 1987. Vol. 17. P. 17–51.

    Klaić, Nada. Marginalia uz problem doseljenja Hrvata [Marginal notes on the problem of the Croat migra­tion], in Hauptmannov zbornik (Razprave SAZU. Knj. V) [A collection of essays in honour of Ljudmil Hauptmann (Proceedings of the Slovenian academy of sciences and arts. Vol. V)]. Ljubljana: SAZU, Razred za zgodovinske in družbene vede, 1966. P. 19–35. (in Croatian).

    Klaić, Nada. Povijest Hrvata u ranom srednjem vijeku [History of the Croats in the early Middle Ages]. 2nd edition. Zagreb: Školska knjiga Publ., 1975. 595 p. (in Croatian).

    Kleyn, Lev Samoylovich. Voskreshenie Peruna. K rekonstruktsii vostochnoslavyanskogo yazychestva [Resurrection of Perun. An approach to reconstruction of East-Slavic pagan religion]. St. Petersburg: Eurasia Publ., 2004. 480 p. (in Russian).

    Košćak, Vladimir. O nekim pitanjima hrvatske povijesti u ranom srednjem vijeku [On some issues of the Croatian history in the early Middle Ages], in Historijski zbornik. 1984. Vol. XXXVII (1). P. 211–234. (in Croatian).

    Kostromin, Konstantin Aleksandrovich. Proiskhozhdenie i funktsiya drevnerusskoy tserkovnoy desyatiny i zapadnoevropeyskie analogi [Origin and function of the old-Russian church tithe and West-European analogues], in Drevnyaya Rus’ vo vremeni, v lichnostyakh, v ideyakh. Almanakh [Ancient Rus’ in time, persons, ideas. Almanach]. Issue 1. St. Petersburg; Kazan, 2014. P. 35–62. (in Russian).

    Krause, Hermann Leopold. Res Slavorum in imperiorum occidentalis et orientalis confinio habitantium saeculo IX. Pars I [History of the Slavs living in the neighbourhood of the Eastern and Western empires in the 9th century. Part I]. Berlin: Typis Gustavi Schade, 1854. 56 p. (in Latin).

    Kulišić, Špiro; Petrović, Petar Ž.; Pantelić, Nikola. Srpski mitološki rečnik [Serbian mythological diction­ary]. Belgrade: Nolit Publ., 1970. 328 p. (in Serbian).

    Lajoye, Patrice. There is no «Perun in the Caucasus»… but maybe an ancient Iranian thunder demon, in Studia mythologica Slavica. 2012. Vol. XV. P. 179–184.

    Laušić, Ante. Pripadnost i uloga srednjovjekovnih Poljica u vrijeme hrvatskih narodnih vladara [Poljica’s political status and role in the time of the Croatian national rulers], in Radovi Zavoda za hrvatsku povijest. 1989. Vol. 22. P. 23–48. (in Croatian).

    Levak, Maurizio. Slaveni vojvode Ivana. Kolonizacija Slavena u Istri u početnom razdoblju franačke uprave [Slavs of duke Iohannes. The Slavic colonization in Istria in the early period of the Frankish rule]. Zagreb: Leykam international Publ., 2007. 143 p. (in Croatian).

    Liebeschuetz, Wolf. The debate about the ethnogenesis of the Germanic tribes, in Amirav, H.; Romeny, Bas ter Haar (eds). From Rome to Constantinople: Studies in honour of Averil Cameron. Leuven: Peeters Publ., 2007. P. 341–355.

    Lončar, Miljenko. Porfirogenetova seoba Hrvata pred sudom novije literature [Porphyrogenitus’ migration of the Croats in the discussion of modern historiography], in Diadora. 1992. Vol. 14. P. 375–448. (in Croatian).

    Mayorov, Aleksandr Vyacheslavovich. Velikaya Khorvatiya: Etnogenez i rannyaya istoriya slavyan Prikarpatskogo regiona [Great Croatia: The ethnogenesis and early history of the Slavs of the Carpathian region]. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University Press, 2006. 209 p. (in Russian).

    Marasović, Tomislav. Bijaći u svjetlu proučavanja ranosrednjovjekovnih vladarskih rezidencija [Bijaći in the context of early medieval royal resdences], in Starohrvatska prosvjeta. Ser. III. 1999. Vol. 26. P. 331–359. (in Croatian).

    Margetić, Lujo. Bilješke u vezi s nastankom hrvatske države u 9. stoljeću [Notes on the emergence of the Croatian state in the 9th century], in Budak, Neven (ed.). Etnogeneza Hrvata [Ethnogenesis of the Croats]. Zagreb: Nakladni zavod Matice hrvatske: Zavod za hrvatsku povijest Filozofskog fakulteta, 1995. P. 144–147. (in Croatian).

    Margetić, Lujo. Bilješke uz Trpimirovu ispravu (CD I, 3–8) [Notes on Trpimir’s charter (CD I, 3–8)], in Zbornik radova Pravnog fakulteta u Splitu. 1993. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 47–51. (in Croatian).

    Margetić, Lujo. Konstantin Porfirogenet i vrijeme dolaska Hrvata [Constantine Porphyrogenitus and the date of the Croat arrival], in Zbornik Historijskog zavoda Jugoslavenske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti. Zagreb, 1977. Vol. 8. P. 5–88. (in Croatian).

    Margetić, Lujo. O Borni, vojvodi Gačana [On Borna, the duke of the Gachans], in Hoško, Franjo Emanuel (ed.). Prošlost obvezuje: Povijesni korijeni Gospićko-Senjske biskupije: Zbornik biskupa Mile Bogovića [The past commits: Historical roots of the bishopric of Gospić and Senj: A collection of essays in honour of bishop Mile Bogović]. Rijeka: Katolički bogoslovni fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu: Teologija u Rijeci, 2004. P. 87–101. (in Croatian).

    Margetić, Lujo. Povezanost strukture hrvatskog društva i političkih odnosa u srednjem vijeku (do pojave staleža) [The interdependence of the structure of Croatian society and political relations in the Middle Ages (before the emergence of estates)], in Rad Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti. 2003. Vol. 487. P. 1–150. (in Croatian).

    Margetić, Lujo. Ugovor Mletaka i italskih gradova contra generationes Sclavorum (840.) [The treaty of Venice and Italian towns contra generationes Sclavorum (840)], in Historijski zbornik. 1988. Vol. XLI (1). P. 217–235. (in Croatian).

    Markotić, Vladimir. Ho ton Hrobaton Theos, Porphyrogenitus’ God of the Croats, in Mandićev zbornik. U čast o. dra Dominika Mandića prigodom njegove 75-godišnjice života [A collection of essays in honour of Dominik Mandić. In honour of Father Dr Dominik Mandić on occasion of the 75th anniversary]. Rome: Hrvatski povijesni institut Press, 1965. P. 11–37.

    Marušić, Juraj Božidar. O poljičkim Tugarima u Trpimirovoj darovnici i supetarskom kartularu [On Poljica’s Tugari in Trpimir’s charter and St. Peter’s cartulary], in Crkva u svijetu. 1974. Vol. 9. No. 1. P. 97–103. (in Croatian).

    Matijević Sokol, Mirjana. 1150. obljetnica darovnice kneza Trpimira [1150th anniversary of duke Trpimir’s charter], in Komšo, D. (ed.). 100 godina Arheološkog muzeja Istre u Puli: nova istraživanja u Hrvatskoj. Znanstveni skup, Pula, 8.–12. listopada 2002. (Izdanja Hrvatskog arheološkog društva. Knj. 25) [100 years of the Archaeological museum of Istria in Pula: Latest research in Croatia. Conference, Pula, October, 8th– 12th, 2002. (Croatian archaeological society editions. Vol. 25)]. Zagreb: Hrvatsko arheološko društvo Publ., 2010. P. 8–18. (in Croatian).

    Milošević, Ante. Il bassorilievo altomedievale del cavaliere di Žrnovnica in Dalmazia [Early medieval relief of the horseman of Žrnovnica in Dalmatia], in Godišnjak Centra za balkanološka ispitivanja ANUBiH. Sarajevo, 2008. Vol. 37/35. P. 181–217. (in Italian).

    Milošević, Ante. Karolinški utjecaji u Hrvatskoj kneževini u svjetlu arheoloških nalaza [Carolingian influences in the Croatian principality in the light of archaeological findings], in Milošević, Ante (ed.). Hrvati i Karolinzi. Dio I: Rasprave i vrela [Croats and Carolingians. Part I: Studies and sources]. Split: Muzej hrvatskih arheoloških spomenika Publ., 2000. P. 106–139. (in Croatian).

    Milošević, Ante. Slika Božanskog boja — likovni i ikonografski pogled na konjanički reljef iz Žrnovnice u Dalmaciji [«Divine batle» pictured: Visual and iconographic view of the horseman relief from Žrnovnica in Dalmatia], in Pleterski, Andrej; Vinšćak, Tomo (eds). Perunovo koplje [Perun’s Spear] (Studia mythologica Slavica — Supplementa. Vol. 4). Ljubljana: Založba ZRC Publ., 2011. P. 17–72. (in Croatian).

    Milošević, Ante. Tko je Porin iz 30. glave De administrando imperio? [Who is Porin from the 30th chapter of the De administrando imperio], in Starohrvatska prosvjeta. Ser. III. 2013. Vol. 40. P. 127–134. (in Croatian).

    Milošević, Ante. Tragovi starih vjerovanja u kršćanstvu ranoga srednjeg vijeka [Traces of ancient beliefs in early medieval Christianity]. Dubrovnik; Split: Omega engineering: Centar «Studia Mediterranea» Publ., 2013. 240 p. (in Croatian).

    Moisl, Hermann. Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies and Germanic oral tradition, in Journal of Medieval History. 1981. Vol. 7. P. 215–248.

    Murray, Alexander C. Reinhard Wenskus on «ethnogenesis», ethnicity, and the origin of the Franks, in Gillett, Andrew (ed.). On barbarian identity: Critical approaches to ethnicity in the Early Middle Ages. Turnhout: Brepols Publ., 2002. P. 39–68.

    Mužić, Ivan. Slaveni, Goti i Hrvati na teritoriju rimske provincije Dalmacije [Slavs, Goths, and Croats in the territory of the Roman province of Dalmatia]. 4th updated edition. Split: Biblioteka Iberia Publ., 1996. 528 p. (in Croatian).

    Mužić, Ivan. Svetojurjevska problematika u Hrvata i sveti Juraj na reljefu crkve u Žrnovnici [The problem of Saint George in Croatia and Saint George on the church’s relief in Žrnovnica], in Starohrvatska problema­tika. Ser. III. 2011. Vol. 38. P. 187–213. (in Croatian).

    Omašić, Vjeko. Povijest Kaštela: Od početaka do kraja XVIII stoljeća [History of Kaštela: From the beginnings to the end of the 18th century]. Split: Logos, 1986. 416 p. (in Croatian).

    Perić, Olja. Jezični slojevi Trpimirove isprave [Language layers of Trpimir’s charter], in Živa antika. Skopje, 1984. Year 34. Vol. 1–2. P. 165–170. (in Croatian).

    Petrukhin, Vladimir Yakovlevich. «Rus’ i vsi yazytsi». Aspekty istoricheskikh vzaimosvyazey: Istoriko-arkheologicheskie ocherki [«Rus’ and all the races». Aspects of historical interrelations: Essays in history and archaeology]. Moscow: «Languages of Slavic culture» Publ., 2011. 384 p. (in Russian).

    Petrukhin, Vladimir Yakovlevich. Mify finno-ugrov [The myths of the Finno-Ugrians]. Moscow: Astrel’; AST: Tranzitkniga Publ., 2005. 463 p. (in Russian).

    Petrukhin, Vladimir Yakovlevich. Problema proiskhozhdeniya drevnerusskoy desyatiny: «Vetkhiy zavet» i drevnerusskaya traditsiya [Problem of the origin of the old-Russian tithe: Old Testament and old-Russian tradition], in Florilegium: K 60-letiyu B. N. Flori [Florilegium: On occasion of the 60th anniversary of B. N. Florya]. Moscow: «Languages of Russian culture» Publ., 2000. P. 265–276. (in Russian).

    Pleterski, Andrej. Kulturni genom: Prostor in njegovi ideogrami mitične zgodbe [The cultural genome: Space and its ideograms of the mythical story]. Ljubljana: Založba ZRC Publ., 2014. 408 p. (in Slovenian).

    Pleterski, Andrej. Strukture tridelne ideologije v prostoru pri Slovanih [Structures of tripartite ideology among the Slavs], in Zgodovinski časopis. 1996. Vol. 50. No. 2. P. 163–185. (in Slovenian).

    Pleterski, Andrej. The trinity concept in the Slavonic ideological system and the Slavonic spatial measurement system, in Światowit. 1995. Vol. 40. P. 113–143.

    Ronin, Vladimir Karlovich. Franko-khorvatskie otnosheniya v traktate Konstantina VII Bagryanorodnogo «Ob upravlenii imperiey» [Relations between the Franks and Croats according Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus’s treatise «De administrando imperio»], in Vizantiyskiy vremennik. 1983. Vol. 44. P. 60–67 (in Russian).

    Rybakov, Boris Aleksandrovich. Yazychestvo Drevney Rusi [ Paganism of Ancient Rus’]. Moscow: «Akademicheskiy Proekt» Publ., 2013. 805 p. (in Russian).

    Rybakov, Boris Aleksandrovich. Yazychestvo drevnikh slavyan [ Early Slavs’ Paganism]. 2nd edition. Moscow: «Nauka» Publ., 1994. 608 p. (in Russian).

    Shchapov, Yaroslav Nikolaevich. Tserkov’ v sisteme gosudarstvennoy vlasti Drevney Rusi [Church in the system of the state power in Old Rus’], in Drevnerusskoe gosudarstvo i ego mezhdunarodnoe znachenie [The Old-Russian state and its international significance]. Moscow: «Nauka» Publ., 1965. P. 279–354. (in Russian).

    Shchavelev, Aleksey Sergeevich. Slavyanskie legendy o pervykh knyazyakh. Sravnitel’no-istoricheskoe issledovanie modeley vlasti u slavyan [Slavic legends on the first princes. A comparative-historical study of Slavic models of power]. Moscow: «Severnyj palomnik» Publ., 2007. 272 p. (in Russian).

    Šegvić, Kerubin. Gotsko podrijetlo Hrvata i kako nastade Hrvatska [The Gothic origin of the Croats and how Croatia emerged]. Split: HKD Napredak Publ., 1997. 132 p. (in Croatian).

    Šišić, Ferdo. Genealoški prilozi оhrvatskoj narodnoj dinastiji [Genealogical essays on the Croatian national dynasty], in Vjesnik Arheološkog muzeja u Zagrebu. 1914. Vol. 13. No. 1. P. 1–93. (in Croatian).

    Šišić, Ferdo. Povijest Hrvata u vrijeme narodnih vladara [History of the Croats in the time of national rulers]. Reprinted edition of 1925. Zagreb: Nakladni zavod Matice hrvatske Publ., 1990. 749 p. (in Croatian).

    Smith, Julia M. H. Confronting identities: The rhetoric and reality of a Carolingian frontier, in Pohl, Walter; Diesenberger, Maximilian (eds.). Integration und Herrschaft. Ethnische Identitäten und soziale Organisation im Frühmittelalter [Integration and Lordship. Ethnic identities and social organization in the early Middle Ages]. Wien, 2002. P. 169–182.

    Smith, Julia M. H. Province and empire: Brittany and the Carolingians. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. 257 p.

    Todorov, Boris. Byzantine myths of origins and their functions, in Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana. 2008. № 2 (4). P. 64–72.

    Tolochko, Aleksey Petrovich. Ocherki nachal’noy Rusi [ Essays on early Rus’]. Kiev; St. Petersburg: «Laurus» Publ., 2015. 336 p. (in Russian).

    Tolochko, Oleksij P. The Primary Chronicle’s «Ethnography» revisited: Slavs and Varangians in the Middle Dnieper Region and the origin of the Rus’ state, in Garipzanov, Ildar H.; Geary, Patrick J.; Urbańczyk, Przemysław (eds). Franks, Northmen, and Slavs: Identities and state formation in early medieval Europe. Turnhout: Brepols Publ., 2008. P. 169–188.

    Třeštík, Dušan. Slavyanskie etnogeneticheskie legendy i ikh ideologicheskaya funktsiya [Slavic ethnogenetic legends and their ideological function], in Studia Balcanica, 20. Rannefeodalnye slavyanskie gosudarstva i narodnosti [Studia Balcanica, 20. Early feudal Slavic states and ethnic groups]. Sofiya, 1991. P. 35–42. (in Russian).

    Třeštík, Dušan. Mýty kmene Čechů (7.–10. století). Tři studie ke «Starým pověstem Českým» [Myths of the Czech tribe. Three studies on the old Czech tales]. Praha: Nakladatelství Lidové noviny, 2003. 292 p. (in Czech).

    Urbańczyk, Przemysław. Slavic and Christian identities during transition to the Polish statehood, in Garipzanov, Ildar H.; Geary, Patrick J.; Urbańczyk, Przemysław (eds). Franks, Northmen, and Slavs: Identities and state formation in early medieval Europe. Turnhout: Brepols Publ., 2008. P. 205–222.

    Urbańczyk, Przemysław. Trudne początki Polski [Difficult origins of Poland]. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego Sp. z o. o., 2008. 420 p. (in Polish).

    Vansina, Jan. Oral Tradition as History. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985. 258 p.

    Vasil’ev, Mikhail Aleksandrovich. Yazychestvo vostochnykh slavyan nakanune kreshcheniya Rusi. Religiozno-mifologicheskoe vzaimodeystvie s iranskim mirom. Yazycheskaya reforma knyazya Vladimira [Eastern Slavs’ Paganism on the eve of the baptism of Rus’. Religious and mythological interrelation with the Iranic world. Prince Vladimir’s pagan reform]. Moscow: «Indrik» Publ., 1998. 328 p. (in Russian).

    Voytovich, Leontiy Viktorovych. Karpats’ki horvaty v etnopitychnomu rozvytku Tsentral’no-Shidnoi Evropy rannyogo serednyovichcha [Carpathian Croats in the ethno-political development of early medieval Central-Eastern Europe], in Ukraina v Tsentral’no-Shidnoi Yevropi (z naydavnishyh chasiv do kintsya XVIII st.). Kiev, 2004. Vol. 4. P. 105–132. (in Ukrainian).

    Wenskus, Reinhard. Stammesbildung und Verfassung. Das Werden der frühmittelalterlichen gentes [Tribal formation and political organization. The making of early medieval gentes]. Köln; Graz: Böhlau Verlag, 1961. 656 p. (in German).

    Wolfram, Herwig. Einleitung oder Überlegungen zur Origo Gentis [Introduction or considerations on Origo Gentis], in Wolfram, Herwig; Pohl, Walter (eds). Typen der Ethnogenese unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Bayern. Teil I [Types of ethnogenesis with special reference to Bavaria. Part I]. Vienna, 1990. P. 19–34. (in German).

    Wolfram, Herwig. Gothic history and historical ethnography, in Journal of Medieval History. 1981. Vol. 7/4. P. 309–319.

    Wolfram, Herwig. Origo et religio. Ethnic traditions and literature in early medieval texts, in Early Medieval Europe. 1994. Vol. 3/1. P. 19–38.

    Wolfram, Herwig. Origo et religio. Ethnic traditions and literature in early medieval texts, in Noble, Thomas F. X. (ed.) From Roman Provinces to Medieval Kingdoms. London; New York: Routledge Publ., 2006. P. 57–74.

    Wolfram, Herwig. The image of Central Europe in Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus’, in Constantine VII Porhyrogenitus and his age: Second International Byzantine conference (Delphi, 22–26 July 1987). Athens, 1989. P. 5–14.

    Zaroff, Roman. Organized pagan cult in Kievan Rus’. The invention of foreign elite or evolution of local tradition?, in Studia mythologica Slavica. 1999. Vol. II. P. 47–76.

     

 

Print Email

  • Hits: 2046