For citation: Avakov, Pyotr Ashotovich; Kochegarov, Kirill Aleksandrovich. The unique drawing of the Zaporozhian Sich and the Kamenny Zaton fortress of the beginning of 18th century, in Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana. 2021. № 2. Pp. 64-78. DOI https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu19.2021.205
|Title of the article||The unique drawing of the Zaporozhian Sich and the Kamenny Zaton fortress of the beginning of 18th century|
|In the section||Fontes / Historical Sources|
|Type of article||RAR||Index UDK; BBK||UDK 94(47)+(477)«16/17»+(0.93); BBK 63.3(2).511+63.2||Index DOI||https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu19.2021.205|
The article was prepared as part of state assignment for 2021 en-trusted to the Federal Research Centre The Southern Scientific Centre of the RAS on the topic «History and Culture of the Peoples of the South of Russia: Between Tradition and Modernization» (state registration number: AAAA-A19-119011190182-8).
The paper presents and analyses the undated drawing of Zaporozhian Sich and Russian fortress Kamenny Zaton (Stone Bay), completely unstudied before. The drawing was made at the beginning of 18th century and has preserved in collection of Malorossiysky prikaz (Little Russia Office) in the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts. Using methods of source criticism and historical geography authors attribute the drawing and conclude that it can be connected with the special mission to Sich, headed by Stol’nik (Steward) Fedor Protasyev and the General Esaul of Zaporozhian Host (Cossack Hetmanate) Ivan Skoropadsky in 1703. The main goal of the mission, that is studied on the base of new archive sources, was to oblige Zaporozhian Cossack to take an oath to the Peter I in return for tsar’s salary. Authors also analyzes in details the drawing itself, describing at the same time the process of building of the Kamenny Zaton and correcting the timeline of it, including the foundation date of the fortress. It appeared that Kamenny Zaton had earthen fortifications only, as the Russian government didn’t manage to build stone ones. The picture of the Kamenny Zaton on the drawing was made in the orthogonal projection as quadrilateral bastion fortress, whereas in reality it had five bastions. The Zaporozhian Sich is pictured as symbolical agglomeration of buildings with gable roofs and four towers. Considering technical and stylistic characteristics of the document it can be identified as the Russian geographical drawing, the unique artefact that reflects and visualizes the history of Russian colonization of the lower Dnieper River territories in the beginning of 18th century.
|Keywords||Zaporozhian Sich, fortress Kamenny Zaton (Stone Bay), Zaporozhian Cossacks, Russian-Ukrainian relations, history of fortification, Russian geographical drawing|
|Full text version of the article.||Article language||Russian|
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Tags: Cossack’s history, medieval studies, FONTES / HISTORICAL SOURCES, historical source, Zaporozhian Cossacks, cultural studies, 18th century , Zaporizhisn Sich, AVAKOV P., KOCHEGAROV K.