|Title of the article||On the question of the structure of the Russian army at the Battle of Orsha|
|In the section||Miscellanea / Miscellanea|
|Type of article||RAR||Index UDK||94(47).042+94(476)||Index BBK||63.3(2)44|
|Abstract|| Battle near Orsha can be used for a reconstruction of a picture of the organization of the Russian army. For reconstruction lists of the captured have paramount value. In total reached 5 lists made in an interval between 1518 and 1538. Separate group captives of fight appear in them near Orsha 1514. Clear split in places of capture was characteristic for early lists. In the register of 1538 where there were new names, this rule was repeatedly violated.
Data of registers are supplemented with the certificate of the Belarusian-Lithuanian chronicles.
In total the 193rd name of service people, captives of Orshansky fight manages to count. Additional data remained in other sources: genealogical, cadastre descriptions, act materials. Attracting methods of the sociological research, the given number can be considered as representative selection of participants of battle from the Moscow party. It is important to note its casual character.
Considered selection gives the chance to define structure of the Russian army. Its studying is possible at observance of two main conditions: it is necessary to find out most precisely an origin and territorial accessory of the revealed persons, and also to determine reliable parameters by one or several corporations.
In the general result except for meshchersky Tatars (6 people) it is possible to count 18 territorial groups.
The main striking power was made by the Novgorod landowners. Among captives it is possible to identify 61 names (33,2%).
Considering the made list captured as representative selection of structure of the Russian army, it is possible to try to determine its number, attracting data of the Novgorod cadastre descriptions, especially description of Vodsky pyatina and Derevsky pyatinas (1250 children of provincial knights or 22,8% from revealed captured), the total number of all service people – participants of considered battle together with Tatars and without taking into account "simple men" according to the principle of a proportion could reach 5500 people. This ratio a little conditionally also could change slightly (in the smaller party) at detection of new names – landowners Vodsky and Derevsky pyatinas in considered selection.
The provided data are supported with the general supervision over mobilization abilities of service people of the North West the considered time. Taking into account absence among captured to Orshansky fight "Bezhetsky pyatina" and the carried-out local distributions in territories adjoining the Novgorod (first of all, in Velikie Luki and Pustaya Rzheva districts) seigniorial this region in considered battle it is possible to estimate the limit number of provincial knights at 2000-2300 people.
All persons which were registered in this or that corporation couldn't take part in any large campaign. Taking into account isolated cases of evasion from service these figures, however, could reflect a picture close to the truth. The Novgorod regiments weren't involved in previous campaign and could be fully completed.
The offered technique which at this stage has presumable character, doesn't allow to estimate the number of all Russian army. The done analysis of its territorial structure allows to speak convincingly about considerable exaggeration of scales of this battle in the Polish and Belarusian historiography. For the Russian party it there was an ordinary fight which, caused incommensurable losses for similar collisions, and for a long time entered into memory of contemporaries and descendants.
|Keywords||Battle of Orsha in 1514, lists of Russian prisoners of war, Russian-Lithuanian War, genealogy|
|Full text version of the article.||Article language||russian|
|Bibliography||Antonov, Anton Vladislavovich; Krom, Mikhail Markovich. Spiski russkikh plennykh v Litve pervoy poloviny XVI veka [Lists of Russian prisoners in Lithuania in the first half of 16th century], in Arkhiv russkoy istorii. Vol. 7. Moscow: Drevlekhranilishche Publ., 2002. Pp. 149–176. (In Russian.)
Baranov, Konstantin Vladimirovich. Zapisnaya kniga Polotskogo pokhoda 1562/63 goda [The note book of the Polotsk hike of 1562–1563 years], in Russkiy diplomatariy. Vol. 10. Moscow: Drevlekhranilishche Publ., 2004. Pp. 119–154. (In Russian.)
Bentsianov, Mikhail Mikhaylovich. Kashirskaya desyatnya 1556 g.: K voprosu o stanovlenii «sluzhilogo goroda» v Russkom gosudarstve [Kashira chronicle of nobility of 1556: County Corporation of gentry and boyars’ children], in Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana. Sankt-Peterburg, 2011. № 1 (9). Pp. 201–214. (In Russian.)
Chernov, Sergey Zaremovich. Volok Lamskiy v XIV – pervoy polovine XVI v. Struktury zemlevladeniya i formirovanie voenno-sluzhiloy korporatsii [Volok on the Lama in 14th – first half of the 16th centuries. Land ownership and the formation of the serving military corporations]. Moscow: [b. i.], 1998. 543 p. (In Russian.)
Kobrin, Vladimir Borisovich. Vlast’ i sobstvennost’ v srednevekovoy Rossii [Power and property in medieval Russia]. Moscow: Mysl’ Publ., 1985. 278 p.
Kozlyakov, Vyacheslav Nikolaevich. Novyj dokument ob oprichnykh pereseleniyakh [New document on Oprichnina migrations], in Arkhiv russkoy istorii. Vol. 7. Moscow, 2002. Pp. 204–211.
Krom, Mikhail Markovich. Starodubskaya voyna. 1534–1537. Iz istorii russko-litovskikh otnosheniy [Starodubskaya war 1534–1537. From the history of Russian-Lithuanian relations]. Moscow: Kvadriga Publ., 2008. 140 p. (In Russian.)
Krotov, Maksim Gavrilovich. Opyt rekonstruktsii desyaten po Serpukhovu i Taruse 1556 g., po Nizhnemu Novgorodu 1569 g., po Meshchere 1580 g., po Arzamasu 1589 g. [Chronicle of nobility’s reconstruction experience based on Serpukhov and Tarussa in 1556, on Nizhny Novgorod in 1569, on Meshchera in 1580, and on Arzamas in 1589], in Issledovaniya po istochnikovedeniyu istorii SSSR dooktyabrskogo perioda. Moscow: AN SSSR Publ., 1985. Pp. 69–91. (In Russian.)
Lobin, Aleksey Nikolaevich. Bitva pod Orshey 8 sentyabrya 1514 g. [Battle of Orsha on September 8th 1514]. Saint-Petersburg: Obshchestvo pamyati igumenii Taisii Publ., 2011. 264 p. (In Russian.)
Mikhaylova, Irina Borisovna. Sluzhilye lyudi Severo-Vostochnoy Rusi v XIV – pervoy polovine XVI veka. Ocherki sotsialnoy istorii [The service class of Northeast Russia in 15th – first half of 16th centuries. Essays on the social history]. Saint-Petersburg: Publ. SPbGU, 2003. 640 p.
Smirnov, Nikolay Valentinovich. Rekonstruktsiya sostava i chislennosti russkikh i litovskikh voysk v bitve na Vedroshi [Reconstruction of the composition and quantity of Russian and Lithuanian troops in the Battle of Vedroshi], in Russkoe srednevekov’e. Sb. statey v chest’ Yu. G. Alekseeva. Moscow: Drevlekhranilishche Publ., 2012. (In Russian.)
Veselovskiy, Stepan Borisovich. D’yaki i pod’yachie. XV–XVII v.v. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1975. 611 p. (In Russian.)
Veselovskiy, Stepan Borisovich. Issledovaniya po istorii klassa sluzhilykh zemlevladel’tsev [Studies in the history of the service class of landowners]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1969. 583 p. (In Russian.)