For citation: Jekele, Ilona. Representation of the Livonian clergy in 13th–16th century sigillographic sources, in Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana. 2021. № 1. Pp. 77-88. DOI https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu19.2021.105
|Title of the article||Representation of the Livonian clergy in 13th–16th century sigillographic sources|
|In the section||Fontes / Historical Sources|
|Type of article||RAR||Index UDK; BBK||UDK 94;
BBK 63.3 (0)
The paper focuses on the investigation of the sigillographic sources — pendant wax seals, that belonged to the representatives of Livonian Bishops and Archbishops of Riga. For the investigation, more than 700 pendant wax seals from the Latvian State Historical Archive’s Fund No. 8 — “Archives of Internal Magistrate of Riga” were analyzed. The paper focuses on the wax seals that belonged to the representatives of the Archbishopric of Riga, and representatives of the Livonian Bishoprics. Analysis of the seals of Livonian clergy reveal that several stages can be distinguished in their development. The earliest wax seals that belonged to the representatives of the Livonian clergy display a well-known image – a bishop seated on a throne holding his regalia. For earliest seals it was common to use uncolored wax, these seals mostly were round in shape but the transition to the pointed oval shape took place during the 13th-century. By the middle and end of the 13th-century seals transitioned into use of red wax. During this time also first double-sided seals (where the reverse can be considered as the counterseal) appeared. In this period bishops and archbishops are depicted standing in the church surroundings, indicating the seal owner’s status and rank. In the 14th-century the use of the family coat of arms also appears. Counterseals in 15th-16th-cenuries are used separately as the great seal and counterseal and the depiction used in them represent the importance of the cult of Virgin Mary in Livonia. Nevertheless, Livonian clergymen also used their family coat of arms for self-representation. Medieval religious communities were specialists in symbolization. During the middle ages they adopted and readjusted their own equivalent of self-representation devices used not only in sigillographic sources but also in artistic and architectural works.
|Keywords||sigillography, sphragistics, wax seals, Livonia, bishops, clergy|
|Full text version of the article.||Article language||English|
Bedos-Rezak, Brigitte Miriam. Women, seals, and power in Medieval France, 1150–1350, in Erler, Mary; Kowaleski, Maryanne (eds). Women and power in the Middle Ages. Athens; London, 1988. Pp. 61–82.
Bedos-Rezak, Brigitte Miriam. Medieval identity: A sign and a concept, in The American historical review. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 5. Pp. 1489–1533.
Broce, Johans Kristofs. Zīmējumi un apraksti. 1. sējums: Rīgas skati, ļaudis un ēkas [Drawings and descriptions. Vol. 1: Sights, people and buildings of Riga]. Ed. by Teodors Zeids. Rīga: Zinātne Publ., 1992. 453 p. (in Latvian).
Clark, William W. Some observations on pairs of French round seals from the later twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, in Notes in the history of art. Vol. 33. Special issue on secular art in the Middle Ages. Ars brevis foundation. 2014. No. 3/4. Pp. 34–43.
Danbury, Elizabeth. Images of English Queens in the Later Middle Ages, in Historian. 1995. No. 46. Pp. 3–9.
Danbury, Elizabeth. Queens and powerful women: Image and authority, in Adams, Noel; Robinson, James (eds). Good impressions: Image and authority in Medieval seals. London: The British Museum Publ., 2008. Pp. 17–25.
Gardner, Julian. Some Cardinals’ seals of the thirteenth century, in Journal of the warburg and courtauld institutes. Vol. 38. London: The Warburg Institute Press, 1975. Pp. 72–96.
Gardner, Julian. Curial Narratives: The Seals of Cardinal Deacons 1280–1305, in Adams, Noel; Cherry, John; Robinson, James (eds). Good impressions: Image and authority in Medieval seals. London: The British Museum Publ., 2008. Pp. 85–91.
Heale, Martin. Mitres and arms: Aspects of the self-representation of the monastic superior in Late Medieval England, in Müller, Anne; Störber, Karen (eds). Self-representation of Medieval religious communities. Berlin: Lit Publ., 2009. Pp. 99–125.
Teplouhova, Ilona. Sieviešu zīmogi un sieviešu attēlojums Livonijas vaska zīmogos [Seals and depictions of women in Livonian wax seals], in Latvijas Universitātes Žurnāls Vēsture. No. 5. Rīga, 2018. Pp. 53–66. (in Latvian).